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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from           to
Commission File Number: 001-37449
ALPINE IMMUNE SCIENCES, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
Delaware
 
20-8969493
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
 
188 East Blaine Street, Suite 200
Seattle, WA  98102
(206) 788-4545
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
 
 
 
Title of each class
 
Trading symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share
 
ALPN
 
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
Large accelerated filer
 
 
Accelerated filer
 
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated Filer
 
 
Smaller reporting company
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
 
 
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
As of May 7, 2020, the registrant had 18,587,892 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, outstanding.




ALPINE IMMUNE SCIENCES, INC.
FORM 10-Q
FOR THE QUARTER ENDED MARCH 31, 2020
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
In this report, unless otherwise stated or as the context otherwise requires, references to “Alpine,” “the Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar references refer to Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc. “Variant Immunoglobulin Domain”, “vIgD”, “Transmembrane Immunomodulatory Protein”, “TIP”, “Secreted Immunomodulatory Protein”, and “SIP” are registered trademarks of Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc. All rights reserved. This report also contains registered marks, trademarks, and trade names of other companies. All other trademarks, registered marks, and trade names appearing in this report are the property of their respective holders. 





PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements (unaudited)
ALPINE IMMUNE SCIENCES, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
 
 
 
March 31, 2020
 
December 31, 2019
 
 
(unaudited)
 
 
Assets
 
 

 
 

Current assets:
 
 

 
 

Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
24,446

 
$
16,123

Short-term investments
 
11,237

 
24,397

Restricted cash, current
 
132

 
132

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
 
2,273

 
1,650

Total current assets
 
38,088

 
42,302

Restricted cash, noncurrent
 
254

 
254

Property and equipment, net
 
1,669

 
1,552

Operating lease, right-of-use asset
 
9,838

 
9,985

Total assets
 
$
49,849

 
$
54,093

Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
 
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
 
Accounts payable
 
$
468

 
$
1,543

Accrued liabilities
 
2,551

 
5,285

Deferred revenue
 
344

 
1,435

Current portion of long-term debt
 
1,742

 
418

Total current liabilities
 
5,105

 
8,681

Operating lease liability, noncurrent
 
11,716

 
11,429

Long-term debt
 
8,169

 
4,509

Total liabilities
 
24,990

 
24,619

Commitments and contingencies
 


 


Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
 
Common stock, $0.001 par value per share; 200,000,000 shares authorized at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019; 18,638,359 shares issued and 18,587,892 shares outstanding at March 31, 2020; 18,638,359 shares issued and 18,587,892 shares outstanding at December 31, 2019
 
19

 
19

Treasury stock, at cost; 50,467 shares at March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019
 

 

Additional paid-in capital
 
118,417

 
117,371

Accumulated other comprehensive gain (loss)
 
(118
)
 
10

Accumulated deficit
 
(93,459
)
 
(87,926
)
Total stockholders’ equity
 
24,859

 
29,474

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
 
$
49,849

 
$
54,093

 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

1



ALPINE IMMUNE SCIENCES, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
 
 
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
2020
 
2019
 
(unaudited)
Collaboration revenue
$
1,091

 
$

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
Research and development
4,878

 
10,350

General and administrative
1,778

 
2,345

Total operating expenses
6,656

 
12,695

Loss from operations
(5,565
)
 
(12,695
)
Other income (expense):
 
 
 
Interest expense
(120
)
 
(70
)
Interest income
152

 
384

Net loss
$
(5,533
)
 
$
(12,381
)
Comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
Unrealized (loss) gain on investments
(15
)
 
15

Unrealized loss on foreign currency translation
(113
)
 
(14
)
Comprehensive loss
$
(5,661
)
 
$
(12,380
)
Weighted-average shares used to compute basic and diluted net loss per share
18,587,892

 
17,671,918

Basic and diluted net loss per share
$
(0.30
)
 
$
(0.70
)
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.


2



ALPINE IMMUNE SCIENCES, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (unaudited)
(in thousands, except share amounts)
 
Common Stock
 
Treasury
 
Additional
Paid-in Capital
 
Accumulated
Other Comprehensive Loss
 
Accumulated Deficit
 
Total
Stockholders’ Equity
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
 
 
 
Balance, December 31, 2018
13,854,205

 
$
14

 
50,467

 
$

 
$
90,664

 
$
(13
)
 
$
(46,074
)
 
$
44,591

Issuance of Units in Private Placement, net of offering costs
4,706,700

 
5

 

 

 
23,613

 

 

 
23,618

Exercise of stock options
124

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

 
754

 

 

 
754

Unrealized gain on investments

 

 

 

 

 
15

 

 
15

Unrealized loss on foreign currency translation

 

 

 

 

 
(14
)
 

 
(14
)
Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 
(12,381
)
 
(12,381
)
Balance, March 31, 2019
18,561,029

 
$
19

 
50,467

 
$

 
$
115,031

 
$
(12
)
 
$
(58,455
)
 
$
56,583

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance, December 31, 2019
18,587,892

 
$
19

 
50,467

 
$

 
$
117,371

 
$
10

 
$
(87,926
)
 
$
29,474

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

 
986

 

 

 
986

Issuance of warrants

 

 

 

 
60

 

 

 
60

Unrealized loss on investments

 

 

 

 

 
(15
)
 

 
(15
)
Unrealized loss on foreign currency translation

 

 

 

 

 
(113
)
 

 
(113
)
Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 
(5,533
)
 
(5,533
)
Balance, March 31, 2020
18,587,892

 
$
19

 
50,467

 
$

 
$
118,417

 
$
(118
)
 
$
(93,459
)
 
$
24,859


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

3



ALPINE IMMUNE SCIENCES, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in thousands)
 
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
2020
 
2019
 
(unaudited)
Operating activities
 

 
 

Net loss
$
(5,533
)
 
$
(12,381
)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
 
 
 
Depreciation expense
135

 
305

Amortization of premium/discount on investments
(41
)
 
(132
)
Non-cash interest expense
44

 
35

Stock-based compensation expense
986

 
754

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
(623
)
 
303

Right-of-use asset
147

 

Accounts payable and accrued liabilities
(4,005
)
 
106

Deferred revenue
(1,091
)
 

Lease liabilities
287

 
(213
)
Net cash used in operating activities
(9,694
)
 
(11,223
)
Investing activities
 
 
 
Purchases of property and equipment
(56
)
 
(121
)
Purchase of short-term investments
(4,914
)
 
(13,296
)
Maturities of short-term investments
18,100

 
31,125

Proceeds from the sale of short-term investments

 
1,391

Net cash provided by investing activities
13,130

 
19,099

Financing activities
 
 
 
Proceeds from borrowings, net of issuance costs
5,000

 

Proceeds from sale of common stock, net of offering costs

 
23,618

Repayment of debt

 
(500
)
Net cash provided by financing activities
5,000

 
23,118

Effect of exchange rate on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
(113
)
 
(14
)
Net increase in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash
8,323

 
30,980

Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, beginning of period
16,509

 
10,843

Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, end of period
$
24,832

 
$
41,823

Supplemental Information
 
 
 
Discount in connection with issuance of debt
$
335

 
$

Cash paid for interest
$
73

 
$
35

Recognition of right-of-use asset
$

 
$
883

 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

4



ALPINE IMMUNE SCIENCES, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Information as of March 31, 2020 and for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 is unaudited)

1. Description of Business
Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc. (the “Company”, “Alpine”, “we”, “us”, or “our”), together with its consolidated subsidiaries, is a clinical-stage immunotherapy company committed to leading a new wave of immune therapeutics, creating potentially powerful multifunctional immunotherapies to improve patients’ lives via unique protein engineering technologies. We have two lead programs, ALPN-101 for autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, and ALPN-202 for the treatment of cancer. Our proprietary scientific platform uses a process known as directed evolution to convert native immune system proteins into multi-targeted therapeutics potentially capable of modulating the human immune system. We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware and are headquartered in Seattle, Washington.
A novel strain of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (“COVID-19”), was first reported in December 2019, and subsequently declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. As a result of the COVID-19 outbreak, many companies have experienced disruptions in their operations and in markets served.  We have implemented some and may take additional temporary precautionary measures intended to help ensure the well-being of our employees and minimize business disruption. We considered the impact of COVID-19 on the assumptions and estimates used and determined that there were no material adverse impacts to our results of operations and financial position at March 31, 2020. The full extent of the future impacts of the COVID-19 outbreak on our operations is uncertain. A prolonged outbreak may adversely impact our business, including our clinical trials.
Liquidity
In accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements - Going Concern (“Subtopic 205-40”), our management evaluates whether there are conditions or events, considered in aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued. We considered such conditions or events and we expect our existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to fund our operations for at least the next 12 months.
In performing the assessment under Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 205-40, we considered that our long-term operations anticipate continuing net losses and the need for potential equity or debt financing. We also considered that new collaborations or selectively partnering our technology or programs may provide other sources of capital. However, there can be no assurances that additional funding or other sources of capital will be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all. Therefore, we developed a plan to implement cost cutting measures to reduce our working capital requirements assuming no additional planned financing. The plan includes a delay in hiring and additional reductions in personnel-related costs and other discretionary expenditures that are within our control and do not effect the anticipated timing of our clinical trials. Based off of our operating plan, it is probable that the cost cutting measures described above can be effectively implemented to allow us to meet our obligations as they become due within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued. 
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Use of Estimates
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”). The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Significant estimates inherent in the preparation of the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include those used for revenue recognition, accruals for clinical trial activities and other accruals, and the estimated fair value of equity-based awards. We base our estimates and assumptions on historical experience when available and on various factors we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements as of March 31, 2020 and for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 and the related interim information contained within the notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited. The unaudited interim financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited financial statements and in the opinion of management, reflect all normal recurring adjustments necessary

5



for a fair statement of our financial position for the interim periods presented. The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes for the years December 31, 2019 and 2018 included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 30, 2020 (“Annual Report”). The results of our operations for the three months ended March 31, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year.
Principles of Consolidation
Our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the financial position and results of operations of Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc. and our wholly owned operating company and subsidiary, AIS Operating Co., Inc., and our wholly-owned subsidiary, Alpine Immune Sciences Australia PTY LTD. All inter-company balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. 
Cash and Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
We consider all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of 90 days or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents consist of deposits with commercial banks in checking and interest-bearing accounts, and highly liquid money market funds.
Restricted cash represents cash drawn on lines of credit used to establish collateral to support the security deposit on our operating leases to rent office and laboratory space in Seattle, Washington.
Periodically, we maintain deposits in financial institutions in excess of government insured limits. We believe we are not exposed to significant credit risk as our deposits, which are held at financial institutions, are high credit quality securities such as money market funds, U.S. Treasury securities, and commercial paper. To date, we have not realized any losses on these deposits.
Short-Term Investments
Our short-term investments include funds invested in highly liquid money market funds, U.S. Treasury securities, commercial paper, and corporate debt securities with a final maturity of each security of less than one year. These investments are classified as available-for-sale debt securities, which are recorded at fair value based on quoted prices in active markets.
If the estimated fair value of a debt security is below its amortized cost basis, we evaluate whether it is more likely than not that we will sell the security before its anticipated recovery in market value. If an impairment exists, the security is written down to its estimated fair value and we consider whether credit losses exist for the related securities. A credit loss exists if the present value of expected cash flows is less than the amortized cost basis of the security. Credit-related losses are recognized as an allowance for credit losses on the balance sheet with a corresponding adjustment to earnings. Unrealized gains and losses that are unrelated to credit deterioration are reported in other comprehensive income (loss). Purchase premiums and discounts are recognized as interest income using the interest method over the terms of the securities. Realized gains and losses and declines in fair value deemed to be other than temporary are reflected in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) using the specific-identification method.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to our customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. Our steps for recognizing revenue consist of; (1) identifying the contract, (2) identifying the performance obligations as either distinct or bundled goods and services, (3) determining the transaction price associated with each performance obligation for which we expect to be entitled in exchange for transferring such goods and services, (4) allocating the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract and (5) recognizing revenue upon satisfaction of performance obligations.
Our collaboration agreements principally contain multiple performance obligations, which may include (1) grants of, or options to obtain, intellectual property licenses; (2) research and development services; and/or (3) manufacturing or supply services. Payments typically received under these arrangements include one or more of the following: non-refundable upfront license fees, option exercise fees, payment for research and/or development efforts, amounts due upon the achievement of specified objectives, and/or royalties on future product sales. Our revenue is primarily derived from our collaboration agreement with Adaptimmune Therapeutics plc (“Adaptimmune”). See further discussion of our collaboration agreements in Note 8.

6



We allocate revenue to each performance obligation based on its relative stand-alone selling price. We generally determine stand-alone selling prices at the inception of the contract based on our best estimate of what the selling price would be if the deliverable was regularly sold by us on a stand-alone basis. Payments received prior to satisfying the relevant revenue recognition criteria are recorded as deferred revenue in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and recognized as revenue when the related revenue recognition criteria are met. We recognize revenue under our collaboration agreements based on employee hours contributed to each performance obligation.
Our collaboration agreements provide for non-refundable milestone payments. We recognize revenue that is contingent upon the achievement of a substantive milestone in its entirety in the period in which the milestone is achieved. A milestone is considered substantive when the consideration payable to us for such milestone (1) is consistent with our performance necessary to achieve the milestone or the increase in value to the collaboration resulting from our performance; (2) relates solely to our past performance; and (3) is reasonable relative to all of the other deliverables and payments within the arrangement. In making this assessment, we consider all facts and circumstances relevant to the arrangement, including factors such as the scientific, regulatory, commercial, and other risks that must be overcome to achieve the milestone, the level of effort and investment required to achieve the milestone and whether any portion of the milestone consideration is related to future performance or deliverables.
We review the contributed employee hours for each performance obligation under our collaboration agreements, and adjust the revenue recognized to reflect changes in assumptions relating to the estimated satisfaction of the performance obligation. We could accelerate revenue recognition in the event of early termination of programs or if our expectations change. Alternatively, we could decelerate revenue recognition if programs are extended or delayed. While such changes to our estimates have no impact on our reported cash flows, the timing of revenue recorded in future periods could be materially impacted.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. The objective of the standard is to improve areas of GAAP by removing certain exceptions permitted by ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes, and clarifying existing guidance to facilitate consistent application. The standard will become effective for us beginning on January 1, 2021. We are currently evaluating the new standard to determine the potential impact on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and financial statement disclosures.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-18, Collaborative Arrangements: Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606. This ASU clarifies that certain transactions between collaborative arrangement participants should be accounted for as revenue when the collaborative arrangement participant is a customer in the context of a unit of account and precludes recognizing as revenue consideration received from a collaborative arrangement participant if the participant is not a customer. We adopted this ASU effective January 1, 2020 and it did not have a material impact on our financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement. ASU 2018-13 modifies the disclosure requirements for fair value measurements by removing, modifying, or adding certain disclosures. We adopted this ASU effective January 1, 2020 and it did not have a material impact on our financial statements and related disclosures.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments: Credit Losses, as clarified in ASU 2019-04 and ASU 2019-05. The objective of the standard is to provide information about expected credit losses on financial instruments at each reporting date and to change how other-than-temporary impairments on investment securities are recorded. We adopted this ASU effective January 1, 2020 and it did not have a material impact on our financial statements and related disclosures. We will continue to monitor the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on expected credit losses.
3. Net Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. The net loss per share for the three months ended March 31, 2019 partially reflects 4,706,700 shares of our common stock issued pursuant to a private placement financing completed in January 2019, which affects the year-over-year comparability of our net loss per share calculations.

7



The common stock issuable upon the conversion or exercise of the following dilutive securities has been excluded from the diluted net loss per share calculation because their effect would have been anti-dilutive. Diluted net loss per share, therefore, does not differ from basic net loss per share for the periods presented.
 
March 31,
 
2020
 
2019
 
(unaudited)
Warrants to purchase common stock
1,894,455

 
1,859,733

Stock options and restricted stock units outstanding
4,257,825

 
3,406,315

Total
6,152,280

 
5,266,048


4. Cash Equivalents and Short-Term Investments
The amortized cost and fair value of our cash equivalents and short-term investments are as follows (in thousands):
 
March 31, 2020
Assets:
(unaudited)
 
Amortized Cost
 
Gross unrealized gains
 
Gross unrealized losses
 
Fair market value
Money market funds
$
17,782

 
$

 
$

 
$
17,782

Corporate debt securities and commercial paper
11,236

 
1

 

 
11,237

Total
$
29,018

 
$
1

 
$

 
$
29,019

 
December 31, 2019
Assets:
Amortized Cost
 
Gross unrealized gains
 
Gross unrealized losses
 
Fair market value
Money market funds
$
9,995

 
$

 
$

 
$
9,995

U.S. treasury bills
5,019

 
2

 

 
5,021

Corporate debt securities and commercial paper
21,862

 
14

 

 
21,876

Total
$
36,876

 
$
16

 
$

 
$
36,892


All short-term investments held as of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019 were classified as available-for-sale securities and had contractual maturities of less than one year. There were no realized gains and losses on these securities for the periods presented.
5. Fair Value Measurements
Cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, receivables, accounts payable and accrued liabilities, which are recorded at invoiced amount or cost, approximate fair value based on the short-term nature of these financial instruments. Fair value is defined as the exchange price received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability, or an exit price, in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. The three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value, is as follows:
Level 1: Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2: Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in inactive markets, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3: Unobservable inputs supported by little or no market activity and significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.

8



As of March 31, 2020, and December 31, 2019, cash of $6.7 million and $3.6 million, respectively, is excluded from the fair value table below. The following tables summarize our financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis (in thousands):
 
March 31, 2020
 
(unaudited)
Assets:
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
Money market funds
$
17,782

 
$

 
$

 
$
17,782

Corporate debt securities and commercial paper

 
11,237

 

 
11,237

Total
$
17,782

 
$
11,237

 
$

 
$
29,019

 
December 31, 2019
Assets:
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
Money market funds
$
9,995

 
$

 
$

 
$
9,995

U.S. treasury bills
5,021

 

 

 
5,021

Corporate debt securities and commercial paper

 
21,876

 

 
21,876

Total
$
15,016

 
$
21,876

 
$

 
$
36,892


Our Level 2 assets consist of commercial paper and corporate debt securities. We review trading activity and pricing for our available-for-sale securities as of the measurement date. When sufficient quoted pricing for identical securities is not available, we use market pricing and other observable market inputs for similar securities obtained from various third-party data providers. These inputs either represent quoted prices for similar assets in active markets or have been derived from observable market data.
6. Additional Balance Sheet Information
Prepaid expenses and other current assets consist of the following (in thousands):
 
March 31, 2020
 
December 31, 2019
 
(unaudited)
 
 
Tenant improvement allowance receivable
$
955

 
$
586

Prepaid research and development
831

 
574

Prepaid insurance
235

 
301

Prepaid other
171

 
89

Other receivables
81

 
100

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
$
2,273

 
$
1,650



Accrued liabilities consist of the following (in thousands):
 
March 31, 2020
 
December 31, 2019
 
(unaudited)
 
 
Research and development services
$
1,856

 
$
2,543

Employee compensation
10

 
1,761

Legal and professional fees
244

 
515

Accrued other
441

 
466

Accrued Liabilities
$
2,551

 
$
5,285



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7. Long-term Debt
In December 2016, we entered into a Loan and Security Agreement (the “Original Agreement”), with Silicon Valley Bank (“SVB”), under which we borrowed $5.0 million. The Original Agreement accrued interest at a floating per annum rate equal to the lender’s prime rate minus 1.75%. The Original Agreement had an interest-only period through July 2018.
On August 26, 2019 (the “Effective Date”), we entered into an Amended and Restated Loan and Security Agreement (the “Loan Agreement”) with SVB, pursuant to which SVB agreed to extend term loans to us with an aggregate principal amount of up to $15.0 million (the “Term Loans”). Borrowings under the Loan Agreement consist of up to three separate tranches. The initial tranche of $5.0 million was funded in August 2019, $3.0 million of which was used to repay amounts owing under our Original Agreement. We intend to use the remaining proceeds for potential working capital and other general corporate purposes, including the advancement of our development programs. In March 2020, the second tranche of $5.0 million was funded to us. The third and final tranche of up to $5.0 million is available at our option at any time from the date on which SVB receives and approves evidence that we have initiated a Phase 2a trial of ALPN-101 in psoriatic arthritis through July 31, 2020.
The Term Loans accrue interest at a floating per annum rate of 0.25% above the prime rate, subject to a floor of 5.75%, which interest is payable monthly commencing in September 2019. Upon the occurrence and during the continuance of an event of default, a default interest rate will apply that is 4.0% above the otherwise applicable interest rate. The Term Loans are interest only until September 30, 2020, after which the Term Loans will be payable in 34 equal monthly installments of principal plus interest, with the final installment due and payable on July 1, 2023.    
We may prepay all of the Term Loans subject to a prepayment fee equal to $75,000, which represents the deferred portion of the final payment due under the Original Agreement, plus the outstanding principal balance under the Term Loans at the time of such prepayment multiplied by a prepayment fee of 2.0% in the first year, 1.0% in the second year, and 0% in the third year and thereafter. Additionally, a final payment in the amount of 5.5% of the funded Term Loans is payable to SVB on the date on which the Term Loans are prepaid, paid or become due and payable in full. The final payment fees are recorded in long-term debt with an offsetting reduction to debt discount on our accompanying Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The Loan Agreement contains customary representations and warranties, events of default and affirmative and negative covenants, including, among others, covenants that limit or restrict our ability to, among other things, incur additional indebtedness, grant liens, merge or consolidate, make acquisitions, pay dividends or other distributions or repurchase equity, make investments, dispose of assets, engage in any new lines of business, and enter into certain transactions with affiliates, in each case subject to certain exceptions. We assessed the likelihood of the lender accelerating payment of the loan due to a material adverse change in our business, operations, financial, or other condition as remote. We were in compliance with our covenants as of March 31, 2020. As such, as of March 31, 2020, the classification of the loan is split between current and noncurrent based on the timing of payment obligations. As security for its obligations under the Loan Agreement, we granted SVB a first priority security interest on substantially all of our assets, except intellectual property, and subject to certain other exceptions.
In connection with the Loan Agreement, we issued a warrant to SVB to purchase up to 52,083 shares of our common stock at a price of $4.32 per share, 17,361 shares of which became exercisable in August 2019 after we drew down the initial tranche. In March 2020, after we drew down the second tranche of our Term Loan, an additional 17,361 shares became exercisable. If we draw down the third tranche of our Term Loan, additional shares will become exercisable. The fair value of the warrants on the date of issuance for the initial tranche and second tranche was $60,000 and $60,000, respectively, determined using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, and was recorded as a component of equity and as a debt discount on our accompanying Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. In connection with Original Agreement, SVB also holds 7,069 fully vested common stock warrants at an exercise price of $12.38 per share.
The Term Loan was accounted for as a debt modification in a non-troubled debt restructuring, rather than a debt extinguishment, based on a comparison of the present value of the cash flows under the terms of the debt immediately before and after the Effective Date of the Term Loan, which resulted in a change of less than 10%. As a result, the remaining unamortized debt discount recorded in connection with the Original Agreement will be amortized to interest expense over the repayment term of Loan Agreement. In connection with the initial and second tranches of the Loan Agreement, we recorded a total debt discount of $812,000, which is being amortized to interest expense using the effective interest method over the repayment term of the loan. Non-cash interest expense associated with the amortization of the discount was $44,000 and $35,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The unamortized discount was $714,000 as of March 31, 2020.  

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Scheduled principal payments on our outstanding debt as of March 31, 2020 under our Loan Agreement, excluding final fee amounts, are as follows (in thousands):
Year ending December 31,
 
Total
2020 (remainder of year)
 
$
883

2021
 
3,529

2022
 
3,529

2023
 
2,059

Total future principal payments
 
$
10,000


8. License and Collaboration Agreements
In May 2019, we entered into a collaboration and licensing agreement with Adaptimmune (the “Adaptimmune Collaboration Agreement”) to develop next-generation SPEAR T-cell products. Under the Adaptimmune Collaboration Agreement, we are to perform certain research services and grant Adaptimmune an exclusive license to programs from our secreted immunomodulatory protein (“SIP”) and transmembrane immunomodulatory protein (“TIP”) technologies. In June 2019, under the terms of the Adaptimmune Collaboration Agreement, we received an upfront license payment of $2.0 million, and through March 31, 2020 we have received an additional $750,000 in research support payments to fund ongoing programs. These payments are recorded as deferred revenue upon receipt and are recognized to revenue based on employee hours contributed to each performance obligation. We recognized revenue of $1.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020 related to the Adaptimmune Collaboration Agreement. In addition, we are eligible for additional research support payments, one-time payments and downstream development and commercialization milestones of up to $288.0 million, if all pre-specified milestones for each program are achieved. We are also eligible to receive low-single digit royalties on worldwide net sales of the applicable products.
9. Stockholders’ Equity
Securities Offerings
In June 2018, we entered into an equity distribution agreement, (“Equity Distribution Agreement”), with Piper Jaffray & Co., (“Piper Jaffray”), pursuant to which we may sell shares of our common stock through an “at the market” equity offering program for up to $50.0 million in gross cash proceeds.
Under the Equity Distribution Agreement, we will set the parameters for the sale of shares, including the number of shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, limitation on the number of shares that may be sold in any one trading day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made. In July 2019, our Registration Statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-212404) expired pursuant to Rule 415(a)(5) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. We will be unable to sell shares under the Equity Distribution Agreement until a new Registration Statement on Form S-3 is filed and declared effective by the SEC and a prospectus supplement relating to any sales under the Equity Distribution Agreement is filed with the SEC. As of March 31, 2020, no sales under our Equity Distribution Agreement have occurred.
Equity Incentive Plans
On January 1, 2020, in connection with our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2018 Plan”) annual increase provision, a total of 929,394 additional shares were automatically added to the shares authorized under the 2018 Plan.
In January 2020, annual stock option grants totaling 1,026,950 shares with a weighted average exercise price of $3.25 per share were issued to eligible employees and board members.
Also in January 2020, we issued 156,328 shares of RSUs at a grant date fair value of $3.23 per share to certain employees in lieu of cash incentive compensation. Half of the shares underlying each RSU will vest on June 30, 2020, with the remaining half vesting on December 31, 2020, subject to each grantee’s continued employment or service to the Company on the applicable vesting dates. In addition, upon a change in control as defined in the 2018 Plan, any unvested shares underlying the RSU will immediately vest.

11



Stock-Based Compensation Expense 
We use the Black-Scholes option pricing model to estimate the fair value of stock options granted at the grant date. The fair value of RSUs is equal to the closing stock price on the date of grant. We recognize the fair value of stock-based compensation as compensation expense over the requisite service period, which is the vesting period. Stock-based compensation is classified in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) as follows (in thousands): 
 
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
2020
 
2019
 
(unaudited)
Employee:
 
 
 
Research and development
$
509

 
$
340

General and administrative
465

 
383

Non-Employee:
 
 
 
Research and development
11

 
29

General and administrative
1

 
2

Total stock-based compensation expense
$
986

 
$
754


10. Income Taxes
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and Australia and our effective tax rate is calculated quarterly based upon current assumptions relating to the full year’s estimated operating results and various tax-related items. Each quarter an estimate of the annual effective tax rate is updated should we revise our forecast of earnings based upon our operating results. If there is a change in the estimated effective annual tax rate, a cumulative adjustment is made. Our effective tax rate was 0.0% for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019. The difference between the effective tax rate of 0.0% and the U.S. federal statutory rate of 21% for the three-month periods ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 was primarily due to recognizing a full valuation allowance on deferred tax assets.  
As of March 31, 2020, we determined that, based on an evaluation of the four sources of income and all available evidence, both positive and negative, including our latest forecasts and cumulative losses in recent years, it was more likely than not that none of our deferred tax assets would be realized and therefore we continued to record a full valuation allowance. No current tax liability or expense has been recorded in the financial statements.

12



Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
You should read the following management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and with our audited financial statements and related notes thereto and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2019, included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K, or the “Annual Report”, filed with the SEC on March 30, 2020.
Forward-Looking Statements

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements and information within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which are subject to the “safe harbor” created by those sections. In some cases you can identify these statements by forward-looking words such as “believe,” “may,” “will,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “could,” “would,” “project,” “plan,” “expect,” or similar expressions, or the negative or plural of these words or expressions. You should read these statements carefully because they discuss future expectations, contain projections of future results of operations or financial condition, or state other “forward-looking” information. These statements relate to our future plans, objectives, expectations, intentions and financial performance and the assumptions that underlie these statements. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:
 
our ability to identify, develop and commercialize additional products or product candidates;
our estimates regarding our expenses, revenues, anticipated capital requirements and our needs for additional financing;
our ability to obtain funding for our operations;
the implementation of our business model and strategic plans for our business and technology;
the timing of the commencement, progress and receipt of data from any of our preclinical and clinical trials;
the expected results of any preclinical or clinical trial and the impact on the likelihood or timing of any regulatory approval;
the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our technology and product candidates;
the anticipated impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, research and clinical development plans and timeliness and results of operations;
the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals;
the therapeutic benefits, effectiveness and safety of our product candidates;
the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of any future products;
our ability to maintain and establish collaborations;
our ability to achieve milestones in our current and any future collaborations;
our expectations regarding market risk, including interest rate changes;
our expectations regarding the sufficiency of our cash and cash equivalents to fund operations for at least the next 12 months;
developments relating to our competitors and our industry; and
our expectations regarding licensing, acquisitions and strategic operations.

These forward-looking statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such a difference include, but are not limited to, those discussed in this report in Part II, Item 1A — Risk Factors, and elsewhere in this report. Forward-looking statements are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. These statements, like all statements in this report, speak only as of their date, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise these statements in light of future developments, except as required by law.

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In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this report, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.
Overview
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company dedicated to discovering and developing innovative, protein-based immunotherapies targeting the immune synapse to treat cancer and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Our proprietary scientific platform converts native immune system proteins into differentiated, multi-targeted therapeutics potentially capable of modulating the human immune system and significantly improving outcomes in patients with serious diseases.
Our lead program is ALPN-101, a dual ICOS and CD28 antagonist intended for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Preclinical studies have demonstrated efficacy in models of graft versus host disease, or GVHD, arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, or SLE, and Sjögren’s syndrome. In an oral presentation at the 2019 American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting, we discussed data from our Phase 1 healthy volunteer study demonstrating that ALPN-101 was well-tolerated as single intravenous or subcutaneous doses, without cytokine release, infusion-related reactions, hypersensitivity, or other signs of agonist activity. Based on our Phase 1 data, we have initiated BALANCE, an open-label, dose escalation, and expansion Phase 1b/2 study in patients with steroid-resistant or steroid-refractory active acute GVHD. We intend to enroll patients throughout 2020 and into 2021. Beyond acute GVHD, we believe that ALPN-101 has the potential to be effective in inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, and Sjögren’s syndrome.
Our lead oncology program is ALPN-202, a conditional CD28 costimulator and dual checkpoint inhibitor intended for the treatment of cancer. Preclinical in vivo data have demonstrated monotherapy efficacy in tumor models superior to approved therapies. In addition, ALPN-202 has a unique immuno-modulatory profile and has demonstrated evidence of anti-tumor immunity in preclinical models. Based on ALPN-202’s efficacy in preclinical models and favorable nonclinical safety and development profile, we have opened NEON-1, a Phase 1 dose escalation and expansion study in patients with advanced malignancies. We intend to enroll patients throughout 2020 and into 2021.
Our scientific platform has also generated immune modulatory proteins with the potential of improving engineered cellular therapies, or ECT, such as chimeric antigen receptor T cells, or CAR-T, T cell receptor-engineered T cells, or TCR-T, and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, or TILs. In May 2019, we signed a collaboration and license agreement with Adaptimmune Therapeutics plc, or Adaptimmune, to develop next-generation SPEARTM T-cell products which incorporate our secreted and transmembrane immunomodulatory protein (termed SIP™ and TIP™) technology. We intend to continue to leverage our existing pipeline and platform to actively explore and evaluate potential value-creating partnering opportunities.
Our goal is to discover and develop modern therapies to treat patients with serious conditions such as cancer and inflammatory diseases. To achieve our goals, we intend to: 
aggressively move our lead inflammation/autoimmune program ALPN-101 through clinical development for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as GVHD;
aggressively move our lead oncology program ALPN-202 through clinical development for the treatment of cancer; and
maximize the value of our pipeline and platform via potential partnering activities.
Our operations to date have been limited to business planning, raising capital, developing our platform technology, identifying potential immunotherapy candidates, and other research and development activities. To date, we have financed operations primarily through private placements of common stock and convertible preferred stock, funds received from license and research agreements, debt financing and assets acquired upon the close of our merger with Nivalis Therapeutics Inc., or Nivalis. We do not have any products approved for sale and have not generated any product sales. Since inception and through March 31, 2020, excluding amounts borrowed through debt financing, we have raised an aggregate of $125.2 million to fund operations, of which $23.6 million was from the sale of common stock, $49.2 million was from the sale of convertible preferred stock, $8.3 million was through our license and collaboration agreements, and $44.1 million in cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities acquired through the merger with Nivalis. As of March 31, 2020, we had cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash, and short-term investments totaling $36.1 million.
Our net loss was $5.5 million and $12.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. We expect to continue incurring significant expenses and operating losses for at least the next several years as we:
 

14



initiate and complete clinical trials for product candidates, including ALPN-101, a dual ICOS/CD28 antagonist program targeting autoimmune/inflammatory disorders and ALPN-202, a CD80 vIgD-Fc that mediates PD-L1-dependent CD28 costimulation and inhibits the PD-L1 and CTLA-4 checkpoints targeting cancer;
contract to manufacture and perform additional process development for our product candidates; 
continue research and development efforts to build our pipeline beyond the current product candidates; 
maintain, expand, and protect our intellectual property portfolio; 
hire additional clinical, quality control, scientific, and management personnel; and 
add operational and financial personnel to support our product development efforts and operational capabilities applicable to operating as a public company.
We do not expect to generate product revenue unless and until we successfully complete development of, obtain marketing approval for and commercialize our product candidates, either alone or in collaboration with third parties. We expect these activities will take a number of years and our success in these efforts is subject to significant uncertainty. Accordingly, we will need to raise additional capital prior to the regulatory approval and commercialization of any of our product candidates. Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial product revenues, we expect to finance our operating activities through equity or debt financings, collaborations or licenses, capital lease transactions, or other available financing transactions. However, additional capital may not be available on reasonable terms, if at all, and if we raise additional funds through the issuance of additional equity or debt securities, it could result in dilution to our existing stockholders and increased fixed payment obligations.
Financial Overview
Collaboration Revenue
We derive our collaboration revenue primarily from our collaboration and licensing agreements. We may generate revenue in the future from research support or milestone payments received pursuant to our collaboration and licensing agreement with Adaptimmune, or the Adaptimmune Collaboration Agreement, or from payments from future license or collaboration agreements, product sales, or government contracts and grants. We expect any revenue we generate, if any, will fluctuate from quarter to quarter.
Adaptimmune Therapeutics plc
In May 2019, we entered into the Adaptimmune Collaboration Agreement with Adaptimmune, a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company primarily focused on providing novel cell therapies to patients, particularly for the treatment of solid tumors, to develop next-generation SPEAR T-cell products which incorporate our secreted and transmembrane immunomodulatory protein (termed SIP™ and TIP™) technology. Under the Adaptimmune Collaboration Agreement, we are to perform certain research services and grant Adaptimmune an exclusive license to programs from our SIP and TIP technologies. In June 2019, under the terms of the Adaptimmune Collaboration Agreement, we received an upfront license payment of $2.0 million and as of March 31, 2020 we have received an additional $750,000 in research support payments to fund ongoing programs. These payments were recorded as deferred revenue and will be recognized to revenue based on employee hours contributed to each performance obligation. We have recognized a total of $2.4 million in revenue through March 31, 2020 related to the Adaptimmune Collaboration Agreement. In addition, we are eligible for additional research support payments, one-time payments and downstream development and commercialization milestones of up to $288.0 million, if all pre-specified milestones for each program are achieved. We are also eligible to receive low-single digit royalties on worldwide net sales of the applicable products.
Research and Development Expenses
We focus our resources on research and development activities, including the conduct of preclinical and clinical studies and product development and expense such costs as they are incurred. Our research and development expenses consist of:
employee-related expenses, including salaries, benefits, taxes, travel, and stock-based compensation expense for personnel in research and development functions;
expenses related to process development and production of product candidates paid to contract manufacturing organizations;

15



costs associated with preclinical activities and regulatory operations, including the cost of acquiring, developing, and manufacturing research material;
clinical trials and activities related to regulatory filings for our product candidates; and
allocation of facilities, overhead, depreciation, and amortization of laboratory equipment and other expenses.
We incurred $4.9 million and $10.4 million in research and development expenses for three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Our research and development expenses could increase for the foreseeable future as we continue to develop our platform and product candidates.
The successful development of our platform and product candidates is highly uncertain. At this time, we cannot reasonably estimate the nature, timing, or costs of the efforts necessary to finish developing any of our product candidates or the period in which material net cash, if any, from these product candidates may commence. This is due to the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with developing therapeutics, including the uncertainty of:
the scope, rate of progress, expense, and results of clinical trials;
the scope, rate of progress, and expense of process development and manufacturing;
preclinical and other research activities; and
the timing of regulatory approvals.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and related costs for employees in executive, business development, finance, and administrative functions. Other significant general and administrative expenses include professional fees for accounting and legal services, expenses associated with obtaining and maintaining patents and other intellectual property, and allocation of facility and overhead costs.
We expect general and administrative expenses could increase as we expand infrastructure and continue to prosecute our patents and other intellectual property. Other increases could potentially include increased costs for director and officer liability insurance, costs related to the hiring of additional personnel, and increased fees for directors, outside consultants, lawyers, and accountants. We expect to incur significant costs to comply with corporate governance, internal controls, and similar requirements applicable to public companies.
Interest Expense
Interest expense consists primarily of interest associated with our term loan with Silicon Valley Bank and the amortization of the related debt discount.  
Interest Income
Interest income consists of interest earned on our cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments.
JOBS Act
On April 5, 2012, the JOBS Act was enacted. Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, for complying with new or revised accounting standards. Thus, an emerging growth company can delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this extended transition period and, as a result, we will adopt new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for other public companies. In addition, for so long as we are an “emerging growth company,” which is until as late as December 31, 2020, we will, among other things not be required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of Sarbanes-Oxley. After we cease to be an “emerging growth company” and for so long as we are not classified as an “accelerated filer” or “large accelerated filer” pursuant to SEC rules, we will continue to be exempt from the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of Sarbanes-Oxley.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

16



Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our financial statements, which we have prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or GAAP. The preparation of these condensed consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements, as well as the reported revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. We evaluate these estimates and judgments on an ongoing basis. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Our actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. Our significant accounting policies are more fully described in Note 2 of the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and in Note 2 to the audited financial statements contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K. There have been no significant or material changes in our significant accounting policies during the three months ended March 31, 2020, as compared to those disclosed in our Annual Report except the following:
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In November 2018, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update, or ASU, No. 2018-18, Collaborative Arrangements: Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606. This ASU clarifies that certain transactions between collaborative arrangement participants should be accounted for as revenue when the collaborative arrangement participant is a customer in the context of a unit of account and precludes recognizing as revenue consideration received from a collaborative arrangement participant if the participant is not a customer. We adopted this ASU effective January 1, 2020 and it did not have a material impact on our financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement. ASU 2018-13 modifies the disclosure requirements for fair value measurements by removing, modifying, or adding certain disclosures. We adopted this ASU effective January 1, 2020 and it did not have a material impact on our financial statements and related disclosures.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments: Credit Losses, as clarified in ASU 2019-04 and ASU 2019-05. The objective of the standard is to provide information about expected credit losses on financial instruments at each reporting date and to change how other-than-temporary impairments on investment securities are recorded. We adopted this ASU effective January 1, 2020 and it did not have a material impact on our financial statements and related disclosures. We will continue to monitor the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on expected credit losses.
For information regarding recent accounting pronouncements, see Note 2 of the Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements under Part I, Item 1 of this report.
Results of Operations
Comparison of Three Months Ended March 31, 2020 and 2019
The following table summarizes our results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
Increase/
(Decrease)
 
2020
 
2019
 
 
(unaudited)
 
 
Collaboration revenue
$
1,091

 
$

 
$
1,091

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 

Research and development
4,878

 
10,350

 
(5,472
)
General and administrative
1,778

 
2,345

 
(567
)
Total operating expenses
6,656

 
12,695

 
(6,039
)
Loss from operations
(5,565
)
 
(12,695
)
 
7,130

Other income (expense):
 
 
 
 
 
Interest expense
(120
)
 
(70
)
 
(50
)
Interest income
152

 
384

 
(232
)
Net loss
$
(5,533
)
 
$
(12,381
)
 
$
6,848


17



Collaboration Revenue
Revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2020 consists of $1.1 million related to the Adaptimmune Collaboration Agreement. We had no revenue during the three months ended March 31, 2019.
Research and Development Expenses
The $5.5 million decrease in research and development expenses was primarily attributable to a decrease of $4.3 million in contract manufacturing and process development of our product candidates, a decrease of $1.3 million in direct research activities, and a decrease of $0.2 million in personnel-related expenses. These decreases were partially offset by increases of $0.2 million in allocated overhead and facilities and $0.1 million in stock-based compensation.
General and Administrative Expenses
The $0.6 million decrease in general and administrative expenses was primarily attributable to a $0.5 million decrease in personnel-related expenses and a decrease of $0.2 million in professional and legal services. These decreases were partially offset by an increase of $0.1 million related to stock-based compensation.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
As of March 31, 2020, we had cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash, and short-term investments totaling $36.1 million. Excluding amounts borrowed through debt financing, we have raised an aggregate of $125.2 million to fund operations, of which $23.6 million was from the sale of common stock, $49.2 million was from the sale of convertible preferred stock, $8.3 million was through our license and collaboration agreements, and $44.1 million in cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities acquired through the merger with Nivalis. In June 2017, August 2019, and March 2020, we drew down term loans from Silicon Valley Bank, or SVB, as discussed below. In addition to our existing cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities, we are eligible to receive research and development funding and to earn milestone and other contingent payments for the achievement of defined collaboration objectives and certain development and regulatory milestones and royalty payments under our collaboration with Adaptimmune; however, our ability to earn these milestone and contingent payments and the timing of achieving these milestones is uncertain.
We have incurred operating losses since inception. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses for the foreseeable future as we continue our research and preclinical and clinical development of our product candidates; expand the scope of our current studies for our product candidates; initiate additional preclinical, clinical or other studies for our product candidates, including under any collaboration agreements; change or add additional manufacturers or suppliers; seek regulatory and marketing approvals for any of our product candidates that successfully complete clinical studies; seek to identify, evaluate and validate additional product candidates; acquire or in-license other product candidates and technologies; maintain, protect and expand our intellectual property portfolio; attract and retain skilled personnel; and experience any delays or encounter issues with any of the above.
Until such time as we can generate substantial product revenue, if ever, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of equity or debt financings and collaboration agreements. Except for any obligations of our collaborator to make milestone payments under our agreement with them, we do not have any committed external sources of capital. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the future sale of equity or debt, the ownership interest of our stockholders will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of our existing common stockholders. If we raise additional funds through collaboration agreements in the future, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams or product candidates or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or future commercialization efforts or grant rights to develop and market product candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.
Our future capital requirements are difficult to forecast and will depend on many factors, including:
the number and characteristics of the future product candidates we pursue either from our internal research efforts or through acquiring or in-licensing other product candidates or technologies;
the scope, progress, results and costs of independently researching and developing any of our future product candidates, including conducting preclinical research and clinical trials;
whether our existing collaborations generate substantial milestone payments and, ultimately, royalties on future approved products for us;

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the timing of, and the costs involved in, obtaining regulatory approvals for any future product candidates we develop independently;
the cost of future commercialization activities, if any;
the cost of manufacturing our future product candidates and products, if any;
our ability to maintain our existing collaboration and to establish new collaborations, licensing or other arrangements and the financial terms of such arrangements;
the costs of preparing, filing, prosecuting, maintaining, defending and enforcing patents, including litigation costs and the outcome of such litigation; and
the timing, receipt and amount of sales of, or royalties on, our current or future collaborators’ product candidates, and our future products, if any.
We have considered that our long-term operations anticipate continuing net losses and the need for potential equity or debt financing. We have also considered that new collaborations or selectively partnering our technology or programs may provide other sources of capital. However, there can be no assurances that additional funding or other sources of capital will be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all. Therefore, we developed a plan to implement cost cutting measures to reduce our working capital requirements assuming no additional planned financing. This plan includes a delay in hiring and additional reductions in personnel-related costs and other discretionary expenditures that are within our control and do not effect the anticipated timing of our Phase 1 clinical trials. Based on this plan, we believe our available cash and cash equivalents, will be sufficient to fund our planned level of operations for at least the next 12 months. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our capital resources sooner than we expect. Additionally, the process of testing drug candidates in preclinical and clinical studies is costly, and the timing of progress in these studies remains uncertain.

Financing Agreements
In January 2019, we entered into a securities purchase agreement, or the Purchase Agreement, with a limited number of accredited investors, pursuant to which we sold approximately 4.7 million units, or the Units, for an aggregate purchase price of $25.3 million in a private placement, which we refer to as the Private Placement. Each Unit has a purchase price of $5.37 per Unit and consists of one share of our common stock and a warrant to purchase 0.39 shares of common stock. Pursuant to the terms of the Purchase Agreement, we issued approximately 4.7 million shares of common stock and warrants to purchase an aggregate of approximately 1.8 million shares of common stock. The warrants have an exercise price of $12.74 and have a term of five years.
In June 2018, we entered into an equity distribution agreement, or the Equity Distribution Agreement, with Piper Jaffray & Co., or Piper Jaffray, pursuant to which we may sell shares of our common stock through an “at the market” equity offering program for up to $50.0 million in gross cash proceeds.
Under the Equity Distribution Agreement, we will set the parameters for the sale of shares, including the number of shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, limitation on the number of shares that may be sold in any one trading day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made. As of March 31, 2020, we have made no sales under the Equity Distribution Agreement. In July 2019, our Registration Statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-212404) expired pursuant to Rule 415(a)(5) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. We will be unable to sell shares under the Equity Distribution Agreement until a new Registration Statement on Form S-3 is filed and declared effective by the SEC and a prospectus supplement relating to any sales under the Equity Distribution Agreement is filed with the SEC.
Long-Term Financing
In August 2019, we entered into an Amended and Restated Loan and Security Agreement, or the Loan Agreement, with SVB, pursuant to which SVB agreed to extend term loans to us with an aggregate principal amount of up to $15.0 million, or the Term Loans. Borrowings under the Loan Agreement consist of up to three separate tranches. The initial tranche of $5.0 million was funded in August 2019, $3.0 million of which was used to repay amounts owing under a previous agreement. We intend to use the remaining proceeds for potential working capital and other general corporate purposes, including the advancement of our development programs. In March 2020, the second tranche of $5.0 million was funded to us. The third and final tranche of up to $5.0 million is available at our option at any time from the date on which SVB receives and approves evidence that we have initiated a Phase 2a trial of ALPN-101 in psoriatic arthritis through July 31, 2020. Each term loan advance, other than the final term loan advance, must be in the amount of not less than $0.5 million and, after repayment, no term loan advance may be re-borrowed. See Note 7 for further discussion of our Term Loans.

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Cash Flows
The following is a summary of our cash flows (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
2020
 
2019
 
(unaudited)
Net cash used in operating activities
$
(9,694
)
 
$
(11,223
)
Net cash provided by investing activities
13,130

 
19,099

Net cash provided by financing activities
5,000

 
23,118

Net Cash Used in Operating Activities:
Net cash used in operating activities was $9.7 million during the three months ended March 31, 2020, and consisted primarily of our net loss of $5.5 million and a decrease of $5.3 million in our net operating assets and liabilities. This was partially offset by a $1.1 million increase in our net non-cash adjustments, which primarily relate to stock-based compensation, depreciation and amortization.
Net cash used in operating activities was $11.2 million during the three months ended March 31, 2019, and consisted primarily of our net loss of $12.4 million. This was offset by increases of $0.2 million in our net operating assets and liabilities and $1.0 million in our net non-cash adjustments, which primarily relate to stock-based compensation, depreciation and amortization.
Net Cash Provided by Investing Activities:
Cash flows from investing activities primarily reflect cash used to purchase short-term investments and proceeds from the maturities and sales of short-term investments, thus causing a shift between our cash and cash equivalents, and short-term investment balances. We manage our cash usage with respect to our total cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments.
Net cash provided by investing activities was $13.1 million during the three months ended March 31, 2020 and consisted primarily of our net purchases and maturities of short-term investments in U.S. Treasury securities, commercial paper, and corporate debt securities as well as purchases of property and equipment, primarily lab equipment, to support our research and development efforts.
Net cash provided by investing activities was $19.1 million during the three months ended March 31, 2019 and consisted primarily of our net purchases, maturities and sales of short-term investments in U.S. Treasury securities, commercial paper, and corporate debt securities as well as the purchases of property and equipment, primarily lab equipment, to support research and development efforts.
Net Cash Provided by Financing Activities:
Net cash provided by financing activities was $5.0 million during the three months ended March 31, 2020 and consisted of the proceeds received from the draw down of the second tranche of our Loan Agreement.
Net cash provided by financing activities was $23.1 million during the three months ended March 31, 2019 and consisted primarily of the net proceeds of $23.6 million related to the sale of approximately 4.7 million Units under our Purchase Agreement, partially offset by $0.5 million related to principal payments on our debt.
Contractual Obligations and Contingent Liabilities
As a “smaller reporting company,” as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act, we are not required to provide additional information on our contractual obligations and contingent liabilities pursuant to Item 303 of Regulation S-K.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We did not have during the periods presented, and we do not currently have, any off-balance sheet arrangements, as defined under SEC rules.

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Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk.
As a “smaller reporting company,” as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act, and pursuant to Item 305 of Regulation S-K, we are not required to provide quantitative and qualitative disclosures about market risk.
Item 4. Controls and Procedures
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) of the Exchange Act), as of the end of the period covered by this report. Based upon the evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that, as of the end of the period covered by this report, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective, in design and operation, at the reasonable assurance level.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
Our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, evaluated any changes in our internal control over financial reporting during the period ended March 31, 2020, and has concluded that there were no changes that materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Inherent Limitation on the Effectiveness of Internal Control
The effectiveness of any system of internal control over financial reporting, including ours, is subject to inherent limitations, including the exercise of judgment in designing, implementing, operating, and evaluating the controls and procedures, and the inability to eliminate misconduct completely. Accordingly, any system of internal control over financial reporting, including ours, no matter how well designed and operated, can only provide reasonable, not absolute assurances. In addition, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. We intend to continue to monitor and upgrade our internal controls as necessary or appropriate for our business, but cannot assure you that such improvements will be sufficient to provide us with effective internal control over financial reporting.

21



PART II: OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1. Legal Proceedings
From time to time, we may become involved in legal proceedings or be subject to claims arising in the ordinary course of our business. We are not presently a party to any legal proceedings that, in the opinion of our management, would reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results or cash flows if determined adversely to us. Regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources and other factors.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
You should carefully consider the following risk factors, in addition to the other information contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in Part I, Item 2, and our condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes. If any of the events described in the following risk factors and the risks described elsewhere in this report occurs, our business, operating results and financial condition could be seriously harmed. This report on Form 10-Q also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements as a result of factors that are described below and elsewhere in this report.
Risks Related to Our Financial Position, Capital Needs and Business
We will need to raise substantial additional funds to advance development of our therapeutic candidates, and we cannot guarantee we will have sufficient funds available in the future to develop and commercialize our current or future therapeutic candidates.
We will need to raise substantial additional funds to expand our development, regulatory, manufacturing, marketing, and sales capabilities or contract with other organizations to provide these capabilities to us. We have used substantial funds to develop our therapeutic candidates and will require significant funds to conduct further research and development, preclinical testing, and clinical trials of our therapeutic candidates, to seek regulatory approvals for our therapeutic candidates, and to manufacture and market products, if any are approved for commercial sale. As of March 31, 2020, we had $36.1 million in cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, and short-term investments. We have developed a plan to implement cost cutting measures to reduce our working capital requirements assuming no additional planned financing. The plan includes a delay in hiring and additional reductions in personnel-related costs and other discretionary expenditures that are within our control and do not effect the anticipated timing of our Phase 1 clinical trials. Based on this plan, we believe our available cash and cash equivalents, will be sufficient to fund our planned level of operations for at least the next 12 months. Our future capital requirements and the period for which we expect our existing resources to support our operations may vary significantly from what we expect. Our monthly spending levels vary based on new and ongoing development and corporate activities. Because the length of time and activities associated with successful development of our therapeutic candidates are highly uncertain, we are unable to estimate the actual funds we will require for development and any approved marketing and commercialization activities. To execute our business plan, we will need, among other things:
to obtain the human and financial resources necessary to develop, test, obtain regulatory approval for, manufacture, and market our therapeutic candidates;
to build and maintain a strong intellectual property portfolio and avoid infringing intellectual property of third parties;
to establish and maintain successful licenses, collaborations, and alliances;
to satisfy the requirements of clinical trial protocols, including patient enrollment;
to establish and demonstrate the clinical efficacy and safety of our therapeutic candidates;
to obtain regulatory approvals;
to manage our spending as costs and expenses increase due to preclinical studies, clinical trials, regulatory approvals, manufacturing scale-up, and commercialization;
to obtain additional capital to support and expand our operations; and
to market our products to achieve acceptance and use by the medical community in general.
If we are unable to obtain necessary funding on a timely basis or on acceptable terms, we may have to delay, reduce, or terminate our research and development programs, preclinical studies, or clinical trials, if any, limit strategic opportunities,

22



or undergo reductions in our workforce or other corporate restructuring activities. We also could be required to seek funds through arrangements with collaborators or others requiring us to relinquish rights to some of our technologies or therapeutic candidates we would otherwise pursue on our own. We do not expect to realize revenue from product sales, or royalties in the foreseeable future, if at all. Our revenue sources are, and will remain, extremely limited unless and until our therapeutic candidates are clinically tested, approved for commercialization, and successfully marketed.
To date, we have financed our operations primarily through the sale of equity securities, debt, and payments received under our collaboration agreements. We will be required to seek additional funding in the future and intend to do so through a combination of public or private equity offerings, debt financings, credit and loan facilities, research collaborations, and license agreements. Our ability to raise additional funds from these or other sources will depend on financial, economic, and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. Additional funds may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all.
If we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities, our stockholders will suffer dilution, and the terms of any financing may adversely affect the rights of our stockholders. For example, in January 2019, we issued in a private placement 4,706,700 shares of common stock and warrants to purchase an additional 1,835,610 shares of common stock for gross proceeds of approximately $25.3 million. We also have an Equity Distribution Agreement in place with Piper Jaffray to sell up to $50.0 million of our common stock, from time to time, through an “at the market” equity offering program under which Piper Jaffray acts as sales agent; however, in July 2019, our Registration Statement on Form S-3 expired pursuant to Rule 415(a)(5), and until a new Registration Statement on Form S-3 is filed and declared effective by the SEC and a prospectus supplement relating to any sales under the Equity Distribution Agreement is filed with the SEC, the equity offering program will not be available to us.
In addition, as a condition to providing additional funds to us, future investors may demand, and may be granted, rights superior to those of existing stockholders. Debt financing, if available, may involve restrictive covenants limiting our flexibility in conducting future business activities, and, in the event of a liquidation or insolvency, debt holders would be repaid before holders of equity securities receive any distribution of corporate assets. Our failure to raise capital or enter into such other arrangements within a reasonable timeframe would have a negative impact on our financial condition, and we may have to delay, reduce, or terminate our research and development programs, preclinical or clinical trials, or undergo reductions in our workforce or other corporate restructuring activities.
We are an early stage biopharmaceutical company with a history of losses, we expect to continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future, we may never achieve or maintain profitability, and we have a limited operating history that may make it difficult for investors to evaluate the potential success of our business.
We are a clinical-stage immunotherapy company, with a limited operating history, focused on developing treatments for autoimmune/inflammatory diseases and cancer. Since inception, we have devoted our resources to developing novel protein-based immunotherapies using our proprietary scientific platform technology, which produces variant Ig domains or vIgDs. We have had significant operating losses since inception. For the three months ended March 31, 2020, our net loss was $5.5 million. Substantially all of our losses have resulted from expenses incurred in connection with our research programs and from general and administrative costs associated with our operations. Our technologies and therapeutic candidates are in early stages of development, and we are subject to the risks of failure inherent in the development of therapeutic candidates based on novel technologies.
We have historically generated revenue primarily from the receipt of research funding and upfront payments under our collaboration agreements. We have not generated, and do not expect to generate, any revenue from product sales for the foreseeable future, and we expect to continue to incur significant operating losses for the foreseeable future due to the cost of research and development, preclinical studies, clinical trials, and the regulatory approval process for therapeutic candidates. The amount of future losses is uncertain. Our ability to achieve profitability, if ever, will depend on, among other things, our or our existing collaborators, or any future collaborators, successfully developing therapeutic candidates, obtaining regulatory approvals to market and commercialize therapeutic candidates, manufacturing any approved products on commercially reasonable terms, establishing a sales and marketing organization or suitable third party alternatives for any approved product, and raising sufficient funds to finance business activities. If we or our existing collaborators, or any future collaborators, are unable to develop and commercialize one or more of our therapeutic candidates or if sales revenue from any therapeutic candidate receiving approval is insufficient, we will not achieve profitability, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
Our approach to the discovery and development of innovative therapeutic treatments based on our technology is unproven and may not result in marketable products.
We plan to develop novel protein-based immunotherapies using our proprietary vIgD technology for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. The potential to create therapies capable of working within and/or modulating

23



an immune synapse, forcing a synapse to occur, or preventing a synapse from occurring is an important, novel attribute of our vIgDs. However, the scientific research forming the basis of our efforts to develop therapeutic candidates based on our platform is relatively new. Further, the scientific evidence to support the feasibility of developing therapeutic treatments based on vIgDs is both preliminary and limited.
Relatively few therapeutic candidates based on immunoglobulin superfamily, or IgSF, domains have been tested in animals or humans, and a number of clinical trials conducted by other companies using IgSF domains technologies have not been successful. We may discover the therapeutic candidates developed using our scientific platform do not possess certain properties required for the therapeutic candidate to be effective, such as the ability to remain stable or active in the human body for the period of time required for the therapeutic candidate to reach the target tissue and/or cell. We currently have only limited data, and no conclusive evidence, to suggest we can introduce these necessary therapeutic properties into vIgD-based therapeutic candidates. We may spend substantial funds attempting to introduce these properties and may never succeed in doing so. In addition, vIgDs may demonstrate different chemical and pharmacological properties in human subjects or patients than they do in laboratory studies. Even if our programs have successful results in animal studies, they may not demonstrate the same chemical and pharmacological properties in humans and may interact with human biological systems in unforeseen, ineffective, or harmful ways. For example, in the context of immunotherapies, in a Phase 1 clinical trial of TeGenero AG’s product candidate TGN1412, healthy volunteer subjects receiving the product candidate experienced a systemic inflammatory response resulting in renal and pulmonary failure requiring interventions such as dialysis and critical care support. Following this experience, regulatory agencies now ask for evaluation of immunomodulatory antibodies with a number of in vitro assays with human cells. While we continue to evaluate our vIgDs preclinically and clinically, the risk profile in humans is still being fully assessed. Undesirable side effects that may be caused by our therapeutic candidates could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by the FDA or other comparable foreign authorities. Such side effects could also affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled patients to complete clinical trials or result in potential product liability claims. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly. As a result, we may never succeed in developing a marketable therapeutic, we may not become profitable, and the value of our common stock will decline.
Further, we believe that the FDA has no prior experience with vIgDs and no regulatory authority has granted approval to any person or entity, including our company, to market and commercialize therapeutics using vIgDs, which may increase the complexity, uncertainty, and length of the regulatory approval process for our therapeutic candidates. Our company and our current collaborators, or any future collaborators, may never receive approval to market and commercialize any therapeutic candidate. Even if our company or a collaborator obtains regulatory approval, the approval may be for disease indications or patient populations not as broad as we intended or desired or may require labeling, including significant use or distribution restrictions or safety warnings. Our company or a collaborator may be required to perform additional or unanticipated clinical trials to obtain approval or be subject to post-marketing testing requirements to maintain regulatory approval. If therapeutic candidates we develop using our scientific platform prove to be ineffective, unsafe, or commercially unviable, our entire platform and pipeline would have little, if any, value, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
The market may not be receptive to our therapeutic products based on a novel therapeutic modality, and we may not generate any future revenue from the sale or licensing of therapeutic products.
Even if approval is obtained for a therapeutic candidate, we may not generate or sustain revenue from sales of the therapeutic product due to factors such as whether the therapeutic product can be sold at a competitive price and otherwise accepted in the market. Therefore, any revenue from sales of the therapeutic product may not offset the costs of development. The therapeutic candidates we are developing are based on new technologies and therapeutic approaches. Market participants with significant influence over acceptance of new treatments, such as physicians and third-party payors, may not adopt a treatment based on our therapeutic products, and we may not be able to convince the medical community and third-party payors to accept and use, or to provide favorable coverage or reimbursement for, any therapeutic products developed by our company, our existing collaborator, or any future collaborators. Market acceptance of our therapeutic products will depend on, among other factors:
the timing of our receipt of any marketing and commercialization approvals;
the terms of any approvals and the countries in which approvals are obtained;
the safety and efficacy of our therapeutic products;
the prevalence and severity of any adverse side effects associated with our therapeutic products;
the prevalence and severity of any adverse side effects associated with therapeutics of the same type or class as our therapeutic products;

24



limitations or warnings contained in any labeling approved by the FDA or other regulatory authority;
relative convenience and ease of administration of our therapeutic products;
the willingness of patients to accept any new methods of administration;
the success of our physician education programs;
the availability of adequate government and third-party payor coverage and reimbursement;
the pricing of our products, particularly as compared to alternative treatments;
our ability to compliantly market and sell our products; and
availability of alternative effective treatments for the disease indications our therapeutic products are intended to treat and the relative risks, benefits, and costs of those treatments.
With our focus on engineering wild-type IgSFs proteins, these risks may increase to the extent this field becomes more competitive or less favored in the commercial marketplace. Additional risks apply in relation to any disease indications we pursue which are classified as rare diseases and allow for orphan drug designation by regulatory agencies in major commercial markets, such as the United States, European Union, and Japan. Because of the small patient population for a rare disease, if pricing is not approved or accepted in the market at an appropriate level for an approved therapeutic product with orphan drug designation, such drug may not generate enough revenue to offset costs of development, manufacturing, marketing, and commercialization despite any benefits received from the orphan drug designation, such as market exclusivity, assistance in clinical trial design, or a reduction in user fees or tax credits related to development expense. Market size is also a variable in disease indications classified as rare. Our estimates regarding potential market size for any rare indication may be materially different from what we discover to exist at the time we commence commercialization, if any, for a therapeutic product, which could result in significant changes in our business plan and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
If a therapeutic product with orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first FDA approval for the indication for which it has such designation, the therapeutic product is entitled to orphan product exclusivity, which means the FDA may not approve any other applications to market the same therapeutic product for the same indication, except in very limited circumstances, for seven years. Orphan drug exclusivity, however, could also block the approval of one of our therapeutic products for seven years if a competitor obtains approval of the same therapeutic product as defined by the FDA or if our therapeutic product is determined to be within the same class as the competitor’s therapeutic product for the same indication or disease.
As in the United States, we may apply for designation of a therapeutic product as an orphan drug for the treatment of a specific indication in the European Union before the application for marketing authorization is made. Sponsors of orphan drugs in the European Union can enjoy economic and marketing benefits, including up to ten years of market exclusivity for the approved indication unless another applicant can show its therapeutic product is safer, more effective, or otherwise clinically superior to the orphan-designated therapeutic product. The respective orphan designation and exclusivity frameworks in the United States and in the European Union are subject to change, and any such changes may affect our ability to obtain EU or U.S. orphan designations in the future.
Our therapeutic candidates are in early stages of development and may fail in development or suffer delays that materially and adversely affect their commercial viability.
We have no products on the market and all of our therapeutic candidates are in early stages of development. Our ability to achieve and sustain profitability depends on obtaining regulatory approval and Institutional Review Board, or IRB, approval to conduct clinical trials at particular sites, obtaining regulatory approvals to market our therapeutic candidates and successfully commercializing our therapeutic candidates, either alone or with third parties, such as our collaborators. Before obtaining regulatory approval for the commercial distribution of our therapeutic candidates, we or a collaborator must conduct extensive preclinical tests and clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy in humans of our therapeutic candidates. Preclinical testing and clinical trials are expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete, and are uncertain as to outcome. For example, we are currently advancing the development of both ALPN-101 and ALPN-202; however, even with the significant investment of time and funding to advance ALPN-101 and ALPN-202, we cannot guarantee that our clinical and pre-clinical development efforts will be successful or that any of our product candidates will advance to human clinical trials. The start or end of a clinical study is often delayed or halted due to delays in or failure to obtain regulatory approval to commence the study, delays in or failure to reach agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations or clinical trial sites, delays in or failure to obtain IRB approval at each site, changing regulatory requirements, manufacturing challenges, clinical sites or contract research organizations deviating from the trial protocol or failing to comply with regulatory requirements or meet contractual obligations, slower than anticipated patient

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enrollment, changing standards of care, availability or prevalence of use of a comparative therapeutic or required prior therapy, clinical outcomes, failure of patients to complete the trial or return for post-treatment follow-up, or financial constraints. For instance, delays or difficulties in patient enrollment or difficulties in retaining trial participants can result in increased costs, longer development times, or termination of a clinical trial. Clinical trials of a new therapeutic candidate require the enrollment of a sufficient number of patients, which may include patients who are suffering from the disease the therapeutic candidate is intended to treat and who meet other eligibility criteria. Rates of patient enrollment are affected by many factors, including the size of the patient population, the eligibility criteria for the clinical trial, the age and condition of the patients, the stage and severity of disease, the nature of the protocol, the proximity of patients to clinical sites, and the availability of effective treatments or competing academic and other clinical trials for the relevant disease.
A therapeutic candidate can unexpectedly fail at any stage of preclinical and clinical development. The historical failure rate for therapeutic candidates is high due to scientific feasibility, safety, efficacy, changing standards of medical care, and other variables. The novelty of our platform may mean our failure rates are higher than historical norms. The results from preclinical testing or early clinical trials of a therapeutic candidate may not predict the outcome of later phase clinical trials of the therapeutic candidate, particularly in immuno-oncology and autoimmune/inflammatory disorders. We will have to conduct trials in our proposed indications to verify the results obtained to date in our preclinical studies and to support any regulatory submissions for further clinical development. A number of companies in the biopharmaceutical industry have suffered significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials due to lack of efficacy or adverse safety profiles despite promising results in earlier, smaller clinical trials. Moreover, clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses. We do not know whether Phase 1, Phase 2, Phase 3, or other clinical trials we may conduct will demonstrate consistent or adequate efficacy and safety with respect to the proposed indication for use sufficient to receive regulatory approval or market our therapeutic candidates.
We, the FDA, an IRB, an independent ethics committee, or other applicable regulatory authorities may suspend clinical trials of a therapeutic candidate at any time for various reasons, including a belief that subjects participating in such trials are being exposed to unacceptable health risks or adverse side effects. Similarly, an IRB or ethics committee may suspend a clinical trial at a particular trial site. We may not have the financial resources to continue development of, or to enter into collaborations for, a therapeutic candidate if we experience any problems or other unforeseen events delaying or preventing clinical development or regulatory approval of, or our ability to commercialize, therapeutic candidates, including:
negative or inconclusive results from our clinical trials, or the clinical trials of others for therapeutic candidates similar to ours, leading to a decision or requirement to conduct additional preclinical testing or clinical trials or abandon a program;
serious and unexpected drug-related side effects experienced by participants in our clinical trials or by individuals using therapeutics similar to our therapeutic candidates;
serious drug-related side effects experienced in the past by individuals using therapeutics similar to our therapeutic candidates;
delays in submitting Investigational New Drug, or IND, applications or clinical trial applications, or comparable foreign applications, or delays or failure in obtaining the necessary approvals from regulators or IRBs to commence a clinical trial, or a suspension or termination of a clinical trial once commenced;
conditions imposed by the FDA or comparable foreign authorities, such as the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, regarding the scope or design of our clinical trials;
delays in enrolling research subjects in clinical trials;
high drop-out rates of research subjects;
inadequate supply or quality of therapeutic candidate or therapeutic candidate components, or materials or other supplies necessary for the conduct of our clinical trials, including those owned, manufactured, or provided by companies other than ours;
greater than anticipated clinical trial costs, including the cost of any approved drugs used in combination with our therapeutic candidates;
poor effectiveness of our therapeutic candidates during clinical trials;
unfavorable FDA or other regulatory agency inspection and review of a clinical trial site;
failure of our third-party contractors or investigators to comply with regulatory requirements or otherwise meet their contractual obligations in a timely manner, or at all;

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delays and changes in regulatory requirements, policies, and guidelines, including the imposition of additional regulatory oversight around clinical testing generally or with respect to our technology in particular; or
varying interpretations of data by the FDA and similar foreign regulatory agencies.
Product development involves a lengthy and expensive process with an uncertain outcome, and results of earlier pre-clinical and clinical trials may not be predictive of future clinical trial results.
Clinical testing is expensive and generally takes many years to complete, and the outcome is inherently uncertain. Failure can occur at any time during the clinical trial process. The results of pre-clinical trials and early clinical trials of our product candidates may not be predictive of the results of larger, later-stage controlled clinical trials. Product candidates showing promising results in early-stage clinical trials may still suffer significant setbacks in subsequent clinical trials. We have evaluated ALPN-101 in a Phase 1 healthy volunteer trial and have initiated our Phase 1b/2 study of ALPN-101. In addition, our Phase 1 study of ALPN-202 is open for enrollment. We will have to conduct trials in our proposed indications to verify the results obtained to date and to support any regulatory submissions for further clinical development. A number of companies in the biopharmaceutical industry have suffered significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials due to lack of efficacy or adverse safety profiles despite promising results in earlier, smaller clinical trials. Moreover, clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses. We do not know whether Phase 1, Phase 2, Phase 3, or other clinical trials we may conduct will demonstrate consistent or adequate efficacy and safety with respect to the proposed indication for use sufficient to receive regulatory approval or market our therapeutic candidates.
Additionally, disruptions at the FDA and other agencies may also slow the time necessary for new drugs to be reviewed by necessary government agencies, which would adversely affect our business. For example, over the last several years, the U.S. government has shut down multiple times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA, have had to furlough critical FDA and other government employees. If a prolonged government shutdown occurs, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
To date, our revenue has been primarily derived from our collaboration agreements, and our success is dependent, in part, on our collaborators’ efforts to develop our therapeutic candidates.
Our success is dependent, in part, on our collaborators’ efforts to develop our therapeutic candidates and, historically, our revenue has been primarily derived from our agreements with collaborators. For example, in October 2015, we entered into an exclusive, worldwide license and research agreement with Kite Pharma, Inc., or Kite, to research, develop, and commercialize engineered autologous T cell therapies incorporating two targets from our technology. In October 2017, Kite was acquired by Gilead Pharma, Inc. and in May 2019, Kite provided notice to us of termination of the research and license agreement, which was effective in June 2019. Also, in May 2019, we entered into a collaboration agreement with Adaptimmune to develop next-generation SPEAR T-cell products.
Continued advancement of our product candidates and other development efforts depends, in part, upon the efforts of our collaborators. If our collaborators do not dedicate sufficient resources to the development of product candidates that are the subject of our agreements, such product candidates may never be successful and we may be ineligible to receive additional milestone payments or royalties pursuant to the terms of our arrangements, which could have a material adverse impact on our financial results and operations. Even if we and our collaborators dedicate sufficient resources to our collaboration agreements, neither we nor our collaborators may be effective in obtaining approvals for any therapeutic candidates or, if approved, the successful commercialization of any approved products. Collaborators may change their strategic focus or pursue alternative technologies after entering into a collaboration agreement with us, which could result in reduced, delayed or no revenue to us. Disputes regarding collaboration agreements, including disputes pertaining to ownership of intellectual property, may also arise and if we and our collaborators are unable to resolve such disputes, litigation proceedings may occur, which could further delay development, distract management and generate substantial expenses, any of which could materially and negatively impact our business.
If third parties on which we depend to conduct our clinical or preclinical studies, or any future clinical trials, do not perform as expected, fail to satisfy regulatory or legal requirements, or miss expected deadlines, our development program could be delayed, which may result in materially adverse effects on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
We rely, in part, on third party clinical investigators, contract research organizations, or CROs, clinical data management organizations, and consultants to design, conduct, supervise, and monitor clinical trials and preclinical studies of our therapeutic candidates and may do the same for future clinical trials. Because we rely on third parties to conduct preclinical

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studies or clinical trials, we have less control over the timing, quality, compliance, and other aspects of preclinical studies and clinical trials than we would if we conducted all preclinical studies and clinical trials on our own. These investigators, CROs, and consultants are not our employees and we have limited control over the amount of time and resources they dedicate to our programs. These third parties may have contractual relationships with other entities, some of which may be our competitors, which may draw their time and resources away from our programs. The third parties with which we contract might not be diligent, careful, compliant, or timely in conducting our preclinical studies or clinical trials, resulting in the preclinical studies or clinical trials being delayed or unsuccessful. Further, if any of our relationships with third-party CROs terminate, we may not be able to enter into arrangements with alternative CROs or to do so on commercially reasonable terms.
If we cannot contract with acceptable third parties on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, or if these third parties do not carry out their expected duties, satisfy legal and regulatory requirements for the conduct of preclinical studies or clinical trials, or meet expected deadlines, our clinical development programs could be delayed and otherwise adversely affected. In all events, we are responsible for ensuring each of our preclinical studies and clinical trials is conducted in accordance with the general investigational plan and protocols for the trial and with legal, regulatory and scientific standards. The FDA and certain foreign regulatory authorities, such as the EMA, require preclinical studies to be conducted in accordance with applicable Good Laboratory Practices, or GLPs, and clinical trials to be conducted in accordance with applicable FDA regulations and Good Clinical Practices, or GCPs, including requirements for conducting, recording, and reporting the results of preclinical studies and clinical trials to assure data and reported results are credible and accurate and the rights, integrity, and confidentiality of clinical trial participants are protected. Our reliance on third parties we do not control does not relieve us of these responsibilities and requirements. If we or any of our CROs fail to comply with applicable GCPs, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA, the EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. We cannot assure you that upon inspection by a given regulatory authority, such regulatory authority will determine that any of our clinical trials comply with GCP regulations. In addition, our clinical trials must be conducted with product produced under current good manufacturing practice, or cGMP, regulations. Our failure to comply with these regulations may require us to repeat clinical trials, which would delay the regulatory approval process. Any such event could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
In addition, switching or adding additional CROs involves additional cost and requires management time and focus. There is also a natural transition period when a new CRO commences work. As a result, delays may occur, which could materially impact our ability to meet our desired clinical development timelines. There can be no assurance that we will not encounter such challenges or delays in the future or that these delays or challenges will not have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and prospects.
The COVID-19 coronavirus could adversely impact our business, including our clinical trials.
In December 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019, or COVID-19, was first reported. Since then, SARS-CoV-2 has spread to multiple countries, including the United States and European and Asia-Pacific countries, including countries in which we have planned or active clinical trial sites. As it continues to spread around the globe, we will likely experience disruptions that could severely impact our business and clinical trials, including:
delays or difficulties in enrolling patients in our clinical trials;
delays or difficulties in clinical site initiation, including difficulties in recruiting clinical site investigators and clinical site staff;
diversion of healthcare resources away from the conduct of clinical trials, including the diversion of hospitals serving as our clinical trial sites and hospital staff supporting the conduct of our clinical trials;
interruption of key clinical trial activities, such as clinical trial site monitoring, due to limitations on travel imposed or recommended by federal or state governments, employers and others;
limitations in employee resources that would otherwise be focused on the conduct of our clinical trials, including because of sickness of employees or their families or the desire of employees to avoid contact with large groups of people;
delays in receiving approval from local regulatory authorities and ethics committees to initiate our planned clinical trials;
delays in clinical sites receiving the supplies and materials needed to conduct our clinical trials;
interruption in global shipping that may affect the transport of clinical trial materials, such as investigational drug product used in our clinical trials;

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changes in local regulations as part of a response to the COVID-19 coronavirus outbreak which may require us to change the ways in which our clinical trials are conducted, which may result in unexpected costs, or to discontinue the clinical trials altogether;
delays in necessary interactions with local regulators, ethics committees and other important agencies and contractors due to limitations in employee resources or forced furlough of government employees; and
refusal of the FDA to accept data from clinical trials whose conduct has been affected by the COVID-19 outbreak, such as due to missing data.
The global outbreak of the COVID-19 coronavirus continues to rapidly evolve. The extent to which the COVID-19 coronavirus may impact our business and clinical trials will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, such as the ultimate geographic spread of the disease, the duration of the outbreak, travel restrictions and social distancing in the United States and other countries, business closures or business disruptions and the effectiveness of actions taken in the United States and other countries to contain and treat the disease.
We face risks related to health epidemics and other outbreaks, which could significantly disrupt our operations and/or business.
Our business could be adversely impacted by the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak originating in China, or by other epidemics. Our supply chain for raw materials, drug substance or drug product is worldwide, including China, and accordingly could be subject to disruption. There may be restrictions on the export or shipment of raw materials, drug substance or drug product that could materially delay our business or clinical trials.
Certain of our research and development efforts are also conducted globally, for example the NEON-1 clinical trial includes investigative sites in Australia. A health epidemic or other outbreak, including the current COVID-19 outbreak, may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The extent to which the outbreak impacts our results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity of the outbreak and the actions to contain the outbreak or treat its impact, among others.
Because we rely on third party manufacturing and supply partners, our supply of clinical trial materials may become limited or interrupted or may not be of satisfactory quantity or quality, and our dependence on these third parties may impair the advancement of our research and development programs.
We have established in-house recombinant protein generation capabilities for producing sufficient protein materials to enable a portion of our current preclinical studies. We rely on third party supply and manufacturing partners to supply the materials, components, and manufacturing services for a portion of preclinical studies and also rely on such third parties for all our clinical trial drug supplies. We do not own manufacturing facilities or supply sources for such components and materials for clinical trial supplies and our current manufacturing facilities are insufficient to supply such components and materials for all of our preclinical studies. Certain raw materials necessary for the manufacture of our therapeutic products, such as cell lines, are available from a single or limited number of source suppliers on a purchase order basis. There can be no assurance our supply of research and development, preclinical study, and clinical trial drugs and other materials will not be limited, interrupted, restricted in certain geographic regions, of satisfactory quality or quantity, or continue to be available at acceptable prices. In particular, any replacement of our therapeutic substance manufacturer could require significant effort and expertise and could result in significant delay of our preclinical or clinical activities because there may be a limited number of qualified replacements.
The manufacturing process for a therapeutic candidate is subject to FDA and foreign regulatory authority review, and the facilities used by our contract manufacturers to manufacture our therapeutic candidates must be approved by the FDA pursuant to inspections that will be conducted after we submit our marketing application(s) to the FDA. Suppliers and manufacturers must meet applicable manufacturing requirements and undergo rigorous facility and process validation tests required by regulatory authorities in order to comply with cGMP regulations or other regulatory standards. In the event any of our suppliers or manufacturers fails to comply with such requirements or to perform its obligations to us in relation to quality, timing, or otherwise, or if our supply of components or other materials becomes limited or interrupted for other reasons, we may experience shortages resulting in delayed shipments, supply constraints, and/or stock-outs of our products, be forced to manufacture the materials alone, for which we currently do not have the capabilities or resources, or enter into an agreement with another third party, which we may not be able to do on reasonable terms, if at all. In some cases, the technical skills or technology required to manufacture our therapeutic candidates may be unique or proprietary to the original manufacturer and we may have difficulty, or there may be contractual and intellectual property restrictions prohibiting us from, transferring such skills or technology to another third party and a feasible alternative may not exist. These factors may increase our reliance on

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such manufacturer or require us to obtain a license from such manufacturer in order to have another third party manufacture our therapeutic candidates. If we are required to change manufacturers for any reason, we will be required to verify the new manufacturer maintains facilities and procedures complying with quality standards and with all applicable regulations. The delays associated with the verification of a new manufacturer could negatively affect our ability to develop therapeutic candidates in a timely manner, within budget, or at all.
We expect to continue to rely on third party manufacturers if we receive regulatory approval for any therapeutic candidate. To the extent we have existing, or enter into future, manufacturing arrangements with third parties, we will depend on these third parties to perform their obligations in a timely manner consistent with contractual and regulatory requirements, including those related to quality control and assurance. If we are unable to obtain or maintain third-party manufacturing for therapeutic candidates, or to do so on commercially reasonable terms, we may not be able to develop and commercialize our therapeutic candidates successfully. Our, or a third party’s, failure to execute on our manufacturing requirements could adversely affect our business in a number of ways, including as a result of:
an inability to initiate or continue preclinical studies or clinical trials of therapeutic candidates under development;
delay in submitting regulatory applications, or receiving regulatory approvals, for therapeutic candidates;
the loss of the cooperation of a collaborator;
subjecting manufacturing facilities of our therapeutic candidates to additional inspections by regulatory authorities;
requirements to cease distribution or to recall batches of our therapeutic candidates; and
in the event of approval to market and commercialize a therapeutic candidate, an inability to meet commercial demands for our products.
We may not successfully engage in strategic transactions, including any additional collaborations we seek, which could adversely affect our ability to develop and commercialize therapeutic candidates, impact our cash position, increase our expenses, and present significant distractions to our management.
From time to time, we may consider strategic transactions, such as collaborations, acquisitions of companies, asset purchases or divestitures, and out- or in-licensing of therapeutic candidates or technologies. In particular, we intend to evaluate and, if strategically attractive, seek to enter into additional collaborations, including with major biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies. The competition for collaborative partners is intense, and the negotiation process is time-consuming and complex. Any new collaboration may be on suboptimal terms for us, and we may be unable to maintain any new or existing collaboration if, for example, development or approval of a therapeutic candidate is delayed, sales of an approved therapeutic product do not meet expectations, or the collaborator terminates the collaboration. Any such collaboration, or other strategic transaction, may require us to incur non-recurring or other charges, increase our near- and long-term expenditures and pose significant integration or implementation challenges or disrupt our management or business.
These transactions would entail numerous operational and financial risks, including:
exposure to unknown liabilities;
disruption of our business and diversion of our management’s time and attention in order to manage a collaboration or develop acquired therapeutic candidates, or technologies;
incurrence of substantial debt or dilutive issuances of equity securities to pay transaction consideration or costs;
higher than expected collaboration, acquisition, or integration costs;
write-downs of assets or goodwill, or incurring impairment charges or increased amortization expenses; and
difficulty and cost in facilitating the collaboration or combining the operations and personnel of any acquired business or impairment of relationships with key suppliers, manufacturers, or customers of any acquired business due to changes in management and ownership and the inability to retain key employees of any acquired business.
Accordingly, although there can be no assurance we will undertake or successfully complete any transactions of the nature described above, any transactions we do complete may be subject to the foregoing or other risks and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and prospects. Conversely, any failure to enter any collaboration or other strategic transaction beneficial to us could delay the development and potential commercialization of our therapeutic candidates and have a negative impact on the competitiveness of any therapeutic candidate reaching market.

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We face competition from entities that have developed or may develop therapeutic candidates for our target disease indications, including companies developing novel treatments and technology platforms based on modalities and technology similar to us. If these companies develop technologies or therapeutic candidates more rapidly than we do, or their technologies, including delivery technologies, are more effective, our ability to develop and successfully commercialize therapeutic candidates may be adversely affected.
We participate in the highly competitive sector of biotechnology and pharmaceuticals and in the subsector of immune modulation. This subsector has undergone tremendous technological advancement over the last decade due to advancements in understanding the role of the immune system across multiple therapeutic areas, including oncology and autoimmune/inflammatory disease. While we believe our novel technology platform, discovery programs, knowledge, experience, and scientific resources offer competitive advantages, we face competition from major pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions, governmental agencies, public and private research institutions, and others.

Any products we successfully develop and commercialize will face competition from currently approved therapies and new therapies potentially available in the future.

The availability of reimbursement from government and other third-party payors will also significantly affect the pricing and competitiveness of our products. Our competitors also may obtain FDA or other regulatory approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for our products, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market.

Many of the companies we compete against may have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, pre-clinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals, and marketing approved products. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel and establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs.

Specifically, our competitors include companies developing therapies with the same target(s) as ALPN-101 and ALPN-202 as well as companies building novel platforms to generate multi-specific antibody or non-antibody-based targeting proteins.
ICOSL/CD28 Competitors
The competitors listed below have programs targeting either ICOS or CD28 (or one of their ligands). To our knowledge, there are currently no competitors with a single molecule targeting ICOS and CD28 simultaneously.
an anti-BAFF, anti-ICOSL bispecific antibody being developed by Amgen, Inc. (AMG570/MEDI0700);
an anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody fragment being developed by OSE ImmunoTherapeutics SA (FR104); and
a CD28-modulatory peptide being developed by AtoxBio, Inc. (reltecimod (AB-103)).
ALPN-202 Program Competitors
There are numerous clinical trials for immuno-oncology products used as a single agent or in combination. One of the potentially novel attributes of the ALPN-202 program is it combines inhibitory receptor antagonism and activating costimulation with a single molecule interacting with multiple immune targets.

Examples of additional multi-target compounds for immuno-oncology are highlighted below. To our knowledge, there are currently no competitors with a single molecule capable of dual PD-L1/CTLA-4 antagonism and PD-L1-dependent CD28 agonism.
wild-type CD80-Fc being developed by Five Prime Therapeutics, Inc. (FPT155);
bispecific antibodies being developed by Regeneron targeting tumor specific antigens and CD28 (REGN5678 anti-PSMAxCD28);
trispecific antibodies being developed by Sanofi (CD3xCD38xCD28);
bifunctional fusion protein composed of monoclonal antibody against programmed death ligand 1 (“PD-L1”) fused to the extracellular domain of human transforming growth factor–β (“TGF-β”) receptor II being developed by EMD Serono, Inc and GlaxoSmithKline plc (bintrafusp alfa, or M7824);
bifunctional fusion protein composed of PD-1 and OX40L developed by Shattuck Labs, Inc. (SL-279252);

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bispecific fusion protein targeting 4-1BB and PD-L1 being developed by Pieris Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (PRS-344);
bispecific monoclonal antibodies being developed by Xencor, Inc. including XmAb20717 targeting CTLA-4 and PD-1, XmAb22841 targeting CTLA-4 and LAG-3, and XmAb23104 targeting PD-1 and ICOS;
bispecific constructs called “DARTs” being developed by Macrogenics, Inc., including MGD013 targeting PD-1 and LAG-3 and MGD019 targeting PD-1 and CTLA-4;
bispecific monoclonal antibody being developed by Tesaro, Inc., which was purchased by GlaxoSmithKline plc, targeting PD-1 and LAG-3;
small molecule antagonists being developed by Aurigene Ltd and Curis, Inc., including CA-170 targeting PD-L1 and VISTA and CA-327 targeting PD-L1 and TIM-3;
FS118, a bispecific monoclonal antibody targeting PD-L1 and LAG-3 being developed by F-star Biotechnology, Ltd.;
various combinations of separate anti PD-1/L1 and anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies; and
various combinations of separate anti PD-1/L1 and costimulatory monoclonal antibodies such as OX-40, 4-1BB, and others.
Novel Platform Competitors
Multifunctional therapeutic protein platforms potentially competitive with our platform include:
Amgen, Inc. (BiTE®): fusion proteins consisting of two single-chain variable fragments to link T-cells to tumors;
Macrogenics, Inc. (DART®): Dual-Affinity Re-Targeting and Trident technology platforms bind multiple targets with a single molecule;
Xencor, Inc. (XmAb Bispecific): Optimized Fc domains for improved potency, half-life and stability;
Zymeworks, Inc. (Azymetric™): Proprietary amino acid modifications to facilitate interaction of distinct heavy chains;
Pieris Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Anticalin®): Engineered proteins derived from natural lipocalins found in blood plasma;
Compass Therapeutics, LLC (Targeted Immunomodulation™, StitchMabs™): Antibody discovery targeting the tumor-immune synapse;
Harpoon Therapeutics, Inc.: TriTAC™ (Tri-specific T cell Activating Construct) contain CD3 binding domain, half-life extension domain, and antigen-binding domain;
Shattuck Labs, Inc.: Agonist Redirected Antibody platform claimed to bind tumor-necrosis factor (“TNF”) and checkpoint targets;
Ablynx NV (Nanobody®), purchased by Sanofi Pharma, Inc.: Platform technology of single-domain, heavy-chain antibody fragments derived from camelidae (e.g., camels and llamas);
Regeneron, Inc.: VEGF Trap and VelociSuite® antibody technology platforms; and
Five Prime Therapeutics, Inc.: Proprietary protein library and rapid protein production and testing platform.
Additionally, there are a number of other therapies for autoimmune/inflammatory diseases or cancer approved or in development that are also competitive with our lead program and other programs in development. Many of the other therapies include other types of immunotherapies with different targets than our programs. Other potentially competitive therapies work in ways distinct from our development programs.
Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing, sales, and supply resources or experience than we have. If we successfully obtain approval for any therapeutic candidate, we will face competition based on many different factors, including safety and effectiveness, ease with which our products can be administered and the extent to which patients accept relatively new routes of administration, timing and scope of regulatory approvals, availability and cost of manufacturing, marketing and sales capabilities, price, reimbursement coverage, and patent position of our products. Competing products could present superior treatment alternatives, including by being more effective, safer, less expensive, or marketed and sold more effectively than any products we may develop. Competitive products may make any products we develop obsolete or noncompetitive before we recover the expense of developing and commercializing our therapeutic candidates. Competitors could also recruit our employees, which could negatively impact our ability to execute our business plan.

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Any inability to attract and retain qualified key management and technical personnel would impair our ability to implement our business plan.
Our success largely depends on the continued service of key management and other specialized personnel, including Mitchell H. Gold, M.D., our Executive Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Stanford Peng, M.D., Ph.D., our President and Head of Research and Development, and Paul Rickey, our Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer.
The loss of one or more members of our management team or other key employees or advisors could delay our research and development programs and materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. The relationships our key managers have cultivated within our industry make us particularly dependent upon their continued employment with us. We are dependent on the continued service of our technical personnel because of the highly technical nature of our therapeutic candidates and technologies, and the specialized nature of the regulatory approval process. Because our management team and key employees are not obligated to provide us with continued service, they could terminate their employment with us at any time without penalty. We do not maintain key person life insurance policies on any of our management team members or key employees. Our future success will depend in large part on our continued ability to attract and retain other highly qualified scientific, technical, and management personnel, as well as personnel with expertise in clinical testing, manufacturing, governmental regulation, and commercialization. We face competition for personnel from other companies, universities, public and private research institutions, government entities, and other organizations, including significant competition in the Seattle employment market.
As our therapeutic candidates advance into clinical trials, we may experience difficulties in managing our growth and expanding our operations.
We have limited experience in therapeutic development and very limited experience with clinical trials of therapeutic candidates. As our therapeutic candidates enter and advance through preclinical studies and clinical trials, we will need to expand our development, regulatory, and manufacturing capabilities or contract with other organizations to provide these capabilities for us. In the future, we expect to have to manage additional relationships with collaborators or partners, suppliers, and other organizations. Our ability to manage our operations and future growth will require us to continue to improve our operational, financial, and management controls, reporting systems, and procedures. We may not be able to implement improvements to our management information and control systems in an efficient or timely manner and may discover deficiencies in existing systems and controls.
If any of our therapeutic candidates are approved for marketing and commercialization and we are unable to develop sales, marketing and distribution capabilities on our own or enter into agreements with third parties to perform these functions on acceptable terms, we may be unable to successfully commercialize any such future products.
We currently have no sales, marketing, or distribution capabilities or experience. If any of our therapeutic candidates are approved, we will need to develop internal sales, marketing, and distribution capabilities to commercialize such products, which may be expensive and time-consuming, or enter into collaborations with third parties to perform these services. If we decide to market our products directly, we will need to commit significant financial, legal, and managerial resources to develop a marketing and sales force with technical expertise and supporting distribution, administration, and compliance capabilities. If we rely on third parties with such capabilities to market our approved products, or decide to co-promote products with collaborators, we will need to establish and maintain marketing and distribution arrangements with third parties, and there can be no assurance we will be able to enter into such arrangements on acceptable, compliant terms or at all. In entering into third-party marketing or distribution arrangements, any revenue we receive will depend upon the efforts of the third parties and there can be no assurance such third parties will establish adequate sales and distribution capabilities or be successful in gaining market acceptance of any approved therapeutic. If we are not successful in commercializing any therapeutic approved in the future, either on our own or through third parties, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
If we fail to comply with U.S. and foreign regulatory requirements, regulatory authorities could limit or withdraw any marketing or commercialization approvals we may receive and subject us to other penalties that could materially harm our business.
Our company, our therapeutic candidates, our suppliers, and our contract manufacturers, distributors, and contract testing laboratories are subject to extensive regulation by governmental authorities in the European Union, the United States, and other countries, with regulations differing from country to country.
Even if we receive marketing and commercialization approval of a therapeutic candidate, we and our third-party service providers will be subject to continuing regulatory requirements, including a broad array of regulations related to

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establishment registration and product listing, manufacturing processes, risk management measures, quality and pharmacovigilance systems, post-approval clinical studies, labeling and packaging, advertising and promotional activities, record keeping, distribution, adverse event reporting, import and export of pharmaceutical products, pricing, sales, and marketing, and fraud and abuse requirements.
We are required to submit safety and other post market information and reports, and are subject to continuing regulatory review, including in relation to adverse patient experiences with the product and clinical results reported after a product is made commercially available, both in the United States and in any foreign jurisdiction in which we seek regulatory approval. The FDA and certain foreign regulatory authorities, such as the EMA, have significant post-market authority, including the authority to require labeling changes based on new safety information and to require post-market studies or clinical trials to evaluate safety risks related to the use of a product or to require withdrawal of the product from the market.
The FDA also has the authority to require a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies, or REMS, plan either before or after approval, which may impose further requirements or restrictions on the distribution or use of an approved therapeutic. The EMA now routinely requires risk management plans, or RMPs, as part of the marketing authorization application process, and such plans must be continually modified and updated throughout the lifetime of the product as new information becomes available. In addition, the relevant governmental authority of any EU member state can request an RMP whenever there is a concern about the risk/benefit balance of the product.
The manufacturers and manufacturing facilities we use to make a future product, if any, will also be subject to periodic review and inspection by the FDA and other regulatory agencies, including for continued compliance with cGMP requirements. The discovery of any new or previously unknown problems with our third-party manufacturers, manufacturing processes or facilities may result in restrictions on the product, manufacturers or facilities, including withdrawal of the product from the market. If we rely on third-party manufacturers, we will have limited control over compliance with applicable rules and regulations by such manufacturers.
If we or our collaborators, manufacturers, or service providers fail to comply with applicable continuing regulatory requirements in the U.S. or foreign jurisdictions in which we seek to market our products, we may be subject to, among other things, fines, warning and untitled letters, clinical holds, a requirement to conduct additional clinical trials, delay or refusal by the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications, suspension, refusal to renew or withdrawal of regulatory approval, product recalls, seizures, or administrative detention of products, refusal to permit the import or export of products, operating restrictions, inability to participate in government programs including Medicare and Medicaid, and total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunction, restitution, disgorgement, debarment, civil penalties, and criminal prosecution.
Imposed price controls may adversely affect our future profitability.
In most countries, the pricing of prescription drugs is subject to governmental control. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after receipt of marketing approval for a product. In addition, there can be considerable pressure by governments and other stakeholders on prices and reimbursement levels, including as part of cost containment measures. Political, economic, and regulatory developments may further complicate pricing and reimbursement negotiations, and pricing negotiations may continue after reimbursement has been obtained.
Reference pricing used by various EU member states and parallel distribution, or arbitrage between low-priced and high-priced member states, can further reduce prices. In some countries, we or our collaborators may be required to conduct a clinical trial or other studies comparing the cost-effectiveness of our therapeutic candidates to other available therapies in order to obtain or maintain reimbursement or pricing approval. Publication of discounts by third-party payors or authorities may lead to further pressure on the prices or reimbursement levels within the country of publication and other countries. If reimbursement of any product candidate approved for marketing is unavailable or limited in scope or amount, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, our business, financial condition, results of operations, or prospects could be adversely affected.
Our business entails a significant risk of product liability and our inability to obtain sufficient insurance coverage could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, or prospects.
Our business exposes us to significant product liability risks inherent in the development, testing, manufacturing, and marketing of therapeutic treatments. Product liability claims could delay or prevent completion of our development programs. If we succeed in marketing products, such claims could result in an investigation by certain regulatory authorities, such as FDA or foreign regulatory authorities, of the safety and effectiveness of our products, our manufacturing processes and facilities, or our marketing programs and potentially a recall of our products or more serious enforcement action, limitations on the approved indications for which they may be used, or suspension or withdrawal of approvals. Regardless of the merits or

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eventual outcome, liability claims may also result in decreased demand for our products, injury to our reputation, costs to defend the related litigation, a diversion of management’s time and our resources, substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients, and a decline in our valuation. We currently have product liability insurance we believe is appropriate for our stage of development and may need to obtain higher levels of product liability insurance prior to marketing any therapeutic candidates. Any insurance we have or may obtain may not provide sufficient coverage against potential liabilities. Furthermore, clinical trial and product liability insurance is becoming increasingly expensive. As a result, we may be unable to obtain sufficient insurance at a reasonable cost to protect us against losses caused by product liability claims with a potentially material adverse effect on our business.
Our employees may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We are exposed to the risk of employee fraud or other misconduct. Misconduct by employees could include, but is not limited to:
intentional failures to comply with FDA or U.S. health care laws and regulations, or applicable laws, regulations, guidance, or codes of conduct set by foreign governmental authorities or self-regulatory industry organizations;
a provision of inaccurate information to any governmental authorities such as FDA;
noncompliance with manufacturing standards we may establish;
noncompliance with federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations; and
a failure to report financial information or data accurately or a failure to disclose unauthorized activities to us.
In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws, regulations, guidance and codes of conduct intended to prevent fraud, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws, regulations, guidance statements, and codes of conduct may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive program, health care professional, and other business arrangements.
Employee misconduct could also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions, including debarment or disqualification of those employees from participation in FDA regulated activities and serious harm to our reputation. This could include violations of provisions of the U.S. federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, or HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH, other U.S. federal and state law, and requirements of non-U.S. jurisdictions, including the European Union Data Protection Directive.
It is not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with such laws, regulations, guidance or codes of conduct. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending such actions or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of significant fines, exclusion from government programs, or other sanctions.
Our business involves the use of hazardous materials and we and our third-party manufacturers must comply with environmental laws and regulations, which may be expensive and restrict how we conduct business.
Our third-party manufacturers’ activities and our own activities involve the controlled storage, use and disposal of hazardous and flammable materials, including the components of our pharmaceutical product candidates, test samples and reagents, biological materials and other hazardous compounds. We and our manufacturers are subject to federal, state, local, and foreign laws and regulations governing the use, generation, manufacture, storage, handling, and disposal of these hazardous materials. Although we believe our safety procedures for handling and disposing of these materials and waste products comply with the standards prescribed by these laws and regulations, we cannot eliminate the risk of accidental injury or contamination from the use, storage, handling, or disposal of hazardous materials. In the event of an accident, state, or federal or other applicable authorities may curtail our use of these materials and/or interrupt our business operations. In addition, if an accident or environmental discharge occurs, or if we discover contamination caused by prior operations, including by prior owners and operators of properties we acquire, we could be liable for cleanup obligations, damages, and fines. If such unexpected costs are substantial, this could significantly harm our financial condition and results of operations.

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Compliance with governmental regulations regarding the treatment of animals used in research could increase our operating costs, which would adversely affect the commercialization of our technology.
The Animal Welfare Act, or AWA, is the federal law covering the treatment of certain animals used in research. Currently, the AWA imposes a wide variety of specific regulations governing the humane handling, care, treatment, and transportation of certain animals by producers and users of research animals, most notably relating to personnel, facilities, sanitation, cage size and feeding, watering, and shipping conditions. Third parties with whom we contract are subject to registration, inspections, and reporting requirements under the AWA. Furthermore, some states have their own regulations, including general anti-cruelty legislation, which establish certain standards in handling animals. Comparable rules, regulations, and or obligations exist in many foreign jurisdictions. If we or our contractors fail to comply with regulations concerning the treatment of animals used in research, we may be subject to fines and penalties and adverse publicity, and our operations could be adversely affected.
Our business and operations could suffer in the event of system failures.
Computer system, network or telecommunications failures due to events such as damage from malware, unauthorized access, terrorism, war, or natural disasters could interrupt our internal or partner operations. For example, the loss of pre-clinical trial data, data from completed or ongoing clinical trials for our product candidates or other confidential information could result in delays in our regulatory filings and development efforts, significantly increase our costs and result in other adverse impacts to our business. To the extent that any disruption or cybersecurity breach was to result in a loss of or damage to our data, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability and other remediation costs, and the development of our product candidates could be delayed. While we have implemented security measures, our internal computer systems and the external systems and services used by our third-party CMOs, third-party CROs, or other contractors, consultants, directors and partners remain potentially vulnerable to damage from these events.
Our information technology systems could face serious disruptions adversely affecting our business.
Our information technology and other internal infrastructure systems, including corporate firewalls, servers, leased lines, and connection to the Internet, face the risk of systemic failure potentially disruptive to our operations. A significant disruption in the availability of our information technology and other internal infrastructure systems could cause interruptions in our collaborations with our partners and delays in our research and development work.
Our current operations are concentrated in one location and any events affecting this location may have material adverse consequences.
Our current operations are located in facilities situated in Seattle. Any unplanned event, such as flood, fire, explosion, earthquake, extreme weather condition, medical epidemics, power shortage, power outage, telecommunication failure, or other natural or manmade accidents or incidents resulting in our company being unable to fully utilize the facilities, may have a material adverse effect on our ability to operate our business, particularly on a daily basis, and have significant negative consequences on our financial and operating conditions. Loss of access to these facilities may result in increased costs, delays in the development of our therapeutic candidates, or interruption of our business operations. As part of our risk management policy, we maintain insurance coverage at levels we believe are appropriate for our business. However, in the event of an accident or incident at these facilities, we cannot assure you the amounts of insurance will be sufficient to satisfy any damages and losses or that the insurance covers all risks. If our facilities are unable to operate because of an accident or incident or for any other reason, even for a short period of time, any or all of our research and development programs may be harmed. Any business interruption may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations, and prospects.
The investment of our cash, cash equivalents, and fixed income in marketable securities is subject to risks which may cause losses and affect the liquidity of these investments.
As of March 31, 2020, we had $36.1 million in cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, and short-term investments. We expect to invest our excess cash in marketable securities. These investments are subject to general credit, liquidity, market and interest rate risks, including potential future impacts similar to the impact of U.S. sub-prime mortgage defaults previously affecting various sectors of the financial markets and which caused credit and liquidity issues. We may realize losses in the fair value of these investments, an inability to access cash in these investments for a potentially meaningful period, or a complete loss of these investments, which would have a negative effect on our financial statements.

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Changes in accounting rules and regulations, or interpretations thereof, could result in unfavorable accounting charges or require us to change our compensation policies.
Accounting methods and policies for biopharmaceutical companies, including policies governing revenue recognition, research and development and related expenses, and accounting for stock-based compensation, are subject to review, interpretation, and guidance from our auditors and relevant accounting authorities, including the SEC. Changes to accounting methods or policies, or interpretations thereof, may require us to reclassify, restate, or otherwise change or revise our financial statements.
Nivalis’ pre-merger net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes are likely subject to limitations. The pre-merger net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes of Alpine and of the combined organization may also be subject to limitations as a result of ownership changes resulting from the merger.
In general, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards, or NOL carryforwards, to offset future taxable income. In general, an ownership change occurs if the aggregate stock ownership of certain stockholders, generally stockholders beneficially owning five percent or more of a corporation’s common stock, applying certain look-through and aggregation rules, increases by more than 50 percentage points over such stockholders’ lowest percentage ownership during the testing period, generally three years. Nivalis may have experienced ownership changes in the past and may experience ownership changes in the future. In addition, the closing of the merger in 2017 likely resulted in an ownership change for Nivalis. It is likely that, due to the method by which limitations on the utilization of NOL carryforwards are calculated, we will not be able to utilize any of Nivalis’ NOL carryforwards and certain other tax attributes. It is also possible that Alpine’s NOL carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be subject to limitation as a result of ownership changes in the past and/or the closing of the merger. Consequently, even if we achieve profitability, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of Alpine’s, or any of Nivalis’ NOL carryforwards and certain other tax attributes, which could have a material adverse effect on cash flow and results of operations.
 Provisions of our debt instruments may restrict our ability to pursue our business strategies.
Our term loan agreement requires us, and any debt financing we may obtain in the future may require us, to comply with various covenants that limit our ability to, among other things: 
dispose of assets;
complete mergers or acquisitions;
incur indebtedness;
encumber assets;
pay dividends or make other distributions to holders of our capital stock;
make specified investments;
engage in any new line or business; and
engagement in certain transactions with our affiliates.
These restrictions could inhibit our ability to pursue our business strategies. If we default under our term loan agreement, including a material adverse change in our business, operations or condition (financial or otherwise), and such event of default is not cured or waived, the lenders could terminate commitments to lend and cause all amounts outstanding with respect to the debt to be due and payable immediately, which in turn could result in cross defaults under other debt instruments. Our assets and cash flow may not be sufficient to fully repay borrowings under our outstanding debt instruments if some or all of these instruments are accelerated upon a default. We may incur additional indebtedness in the future. The debt instruments governing such indebtedness could contain provisions that are as, or more, restrictive than our existing debt instruments. If we are unable to repay, refinance or restructure our indebtedness when payment is due, the lenders could proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure such indebtedness or force us into bankruptcy or liquidation.
Our business may be affected by litigation and government investigations.
We may from time to time receive inquiries and subpoenas and other types of information requests from government authorities and others and we may become subject to claims and other actions related to our business activities. While the ultimate outcome of investigations, inquiries, information requests, and legal proceedings is difficult to predict, defense of litigation claims can be expensive, time-consuming and distracting, and adverse resolutions or settlements of those matters may

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result in, among other things, modification of our business practices, costs, and significant payments, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
We believe our development programs and platform have a particular mechanism of action, but this mechanism of action has not been proven conclusively.
Our scientific platform is novel, and the underlying science is not exhaustively understood nor conclusively proven. In particular, the interaction of vIgDs with the immune synapse, the ability of vIgDs to slow, stop, restart, or accelerate immune responses, and the ability of vIgD domains to interact with multiple counter structures is still largely theoretical. Graphical representations of proposed mechanisms of action of our therapies, the size, actual or relative, of our therapeutics, and how our therapeutics might interface with other cells within the human body, inside the immune synapse, or inside the disease and/or the tumor microenvironment are similarly theoretical and not yet conclusively proven. The lack of a proven mechanism of action may adversely affect our ability to raise sufficient capital, complete preclinical studies, adequately manufacture drug product, obtain regulatory clearance for clinical trials, gain marketing approval, or conclude collaborations, or interfere with our ability to market our product to patients and physicians or achieve reimbursement from payors.
Any inability to present our data in scientific journals or at scientific conferences could adversely impact our business and stock price.
We may from time to time submit data related to our research and development activities in peer-reviewed scientific publications or apply to present data related to our research and development activities at scientific or other conferences. We have no control over whether these submissions or applications are accepted. Even if accepted for a conference, we have no control over whether presentations at scientific conferences will be accepted for oral presentation, poster presentation, or abstract publication only. Even when accepted for publication, we have no control over the timing of the release of the publication. Rejection by publications, delays in publication, rejection for presentation, or a less-preferred format for a presentation may adversely impact our stock price, ability to raise capital, and business.
Our business may be affected by adverse scientific publications or editorial or discussant opinions.
We may from time to time publish data related to our research and development activities in peer-reviewed scientific publications or present data related to our research and development activities at scientific or other conferences. Editorials or discussants unrelated to us may provide opinions on our presented data unfavorable to us. In addition, scientific publications or presentations may be made which are critical of our science or research or the field of immunotherapy in general. This may adversely affect our ability to raise necessary capital, complete clinical and preclinical studies, adequately manufacture drug product, obtain regulatory clearance for clinical trials, or approval for marketing, or interfere with our ability to market our product to patients and physicians or achieve reimbursement from payors.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
If we are not able to obtain and enforce patent protection for our technology, including therapeutic candidates, therapeutic products, and platform technology, development of our therapeutic candidates and platform, and commercialization of our therapeutic products may be materially and adversely affected.
Our success depends in part on our ability to obtain and maintain patents and other forms of intellectual property rights, including in-licenses of intellectual property rights of others, for our technology, including platform and therapeutic candidates and products, methods used to manufacture our therapeutic candidates and products, and methods for treating patients using our therapeutic candidates and products, as well as our ability to preserve our trade secrets, to prevent third parties from infringing upon our proprietary rights, and to operate without infringing upon the proprietary rights of others. Our scientific platform and substantially all of our intellectual property have been developed internally. As of March 31, 2020, our patent portfolio consists of over 100 pending patent applications. We may not be able to apply for patents on certain aspects of our technology, including therapeutic candidates and products, in a timely fashion or at all. Any future patents we obtain may not be sufficiently broad to prevent others from using our technology or from developing competing therapeutics and technology. There is no guarantee that any of our pending patent applications will result in issued or granted patents, any of our issued or granted patents will not later be found to be invalid or unenforceable, or any issued or granted patents will include claims sufficiently broad to cover our technology, including therapeutic candidates and products, or to provide meaningful protection from our competitors. Moreover, the patent position of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies can be highly uncertain because it involves complex legal and factual questions. We will be able to protect our proprietary rights from unauthorized use by third parties only to the extent our current and future technology, including therapeutic candidates and

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products, are covered by valid and enforceable patents or are effectively maintained as trade secrets. If third parties disclose or misappropriate our proprietary rights, it may materially and adversely impact our competitive position in the market.
The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO, and various foreign governmental patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment, and other provisions during the patent process. There are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. In such an event, competitors might be able to enter the market earlier than would otherwise have been the case. Further, the standards applied by the USPTO and foreign patent offices in granting patents are not always applied uniformly or predictably. For example, there is no uniform worldwide policy regarding patentable subject matter or the scope of claims allowable in biotechnology and pharmaceutical patents. As such, we do not know the degree of future protection we will have on our technology, including therapeutic candidates and products. While we will endeavor to try to protect our technology, including therapeutic candidates and products, with intellectual property rights such as patents, as appropriate, the process of obtaining patents is time-consuming, expensive, and sometimes unpredictable, and we can provide no assurances our technology, including therapeutic candidates and products, will be adequately protected in the future against unauthorized uses or competing claims by third parties.
In addition, recent and future changes to the patent laws and to the rules of the USPTO or other foreign patent offices may have a significant impact on our ability to protect our technology, including therapeutic candidates and products, and enforce our intellectual property rights. For example, the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act enacted in 2011 involves significant changes in patent legislation. In addition, we cannot assure that court rulings or interpretations of any court decision will not adversely impact our patents or patent applications. In addition to increasing uncertainty with regard to our ability to obtain patents in the future, there also may be uncertainty with respect to the value of patents, once obtained. Depending on decisions by the U.S. Congress, the federal courts, the USPTO, or made in foreign jurisdictions, the laws and regulations governing patents could change in unpredictable ways that would weaken our ability to obtain new patents or to enforce our existing patents and patents we might obtain in the future.
Once granted, patents may remain open to opposition, interference, re-examination, post-grant review, inter partes review, nullification, or derivation action in court or before patent offices or similar proceedings before or after allowance or grant, during which time third parties can raise objections against such initial grant. In the course of such proceedings, which may continue for a protracted period of time, the patent owner may be compelled to limit the scope of the pending, allowed or granted claims thus attacked or may lose the allowed or granted claims altogether. Our patent risks include that:
others may, or may be able to, make, use, offer to sell, or sell compounds that are the same as or similar to our therapeutic candidates and products but that are not covered by the claims of the patents we own or license;
we or our licensors, collaborators, or any future collaborators may not be the first to file patent applications covering certain aspects of our technology, including therapeutic candidates and products;
others may independently develop similar or alternative technology or duplicate any of our technology without infringing our intellectual property rights;
a third party may challenge our patents and, if challenged, a court may not hold that our patents are valid, enforceable, or that a third party is infringing;
a third party may challenge our patents in various patent offices and, if challenged, we may be compelled to limit the scope of our pending, allowed or granted claims or lose the allowed or granted claims altogether;
any issued patents we own or have licensed may not provide us with any competitive advantages, or may be challenged by third parties;
we may not develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable;
the patents of others could harm our business; and
our competitors could conduct research and development activities in countries where we do not or will not have enforceable patent rights and then use the information learned from such activities to develop competitive products for sale in major commercial markets where we do not or will not have enforceable patent rights.
We may license patent rights from third-party owners or licensees. If such owners or licensees do not properly or successfully obtain, maintain or enforce the patents underlying such licenses, or if they retain or license to others any competing rights, our competitive position and business prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
We may rely upon intellectual property rights licensed from third parties to protect our technology, including platform technology and therapeutic candidates and products. To date, we have in-licensed some intellectual property on a non-exclusive basis relating to commercially-available cell lines involved in the manufacture of our vIgD programs; however, we may also

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license additional third-party intellectual property in the future, to protect our technology, including intellectual property relating to our platform technology and therapeutic candidates and products. Our success will depend in part on the ability of our licensors to obtain, maintain, and enforce patent protection for our licensed intellectual property, in particular those patents to which we have secured exclusive rights. Our licensors may elect not to prosecute, or may be unsuccessful in prosecuting, any patent applications licensed to us. Even if patents issue or are granted, our licensors may fail to maintain these patents, may determine not to pursue litigation against other companies infringing these patents, or may pursue litigation less aggressively than we would. Further, any licenses we enter into may be non-exclusive and we may not be able to obtain exclusive rights, which would potentially allow third parties to develop competing products or technology. Without protection for, or exclusive right to, any intellectual property we may license, other companies might be able to offer substantially identical or similar product for sale, which could adversely affect our competitive business position and harm our business prospects. In addition, we may sublicense any rights we have under third-party licenses to current or future collaborators or any future strategic partners. Any impairment of these sublicensed rights could result in reduced revenue under or result in termination of an agreement by one or more of our collaborators or any future strategic partners.
We may be unable to protect our patent intellectual property rights throughout the world.
Obtaining a valid and enforceable issued or granted patent covering our technology, including therapeutic candidates and products, in the United States and worldwide can be extremely costly. In jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection, competitors may use our technology, including therapeutic candidates and products, to develop their own products, and further, may commercialize such products in those jurisdictions and export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have not obtained patent protection. In certain instances, a competitor may be able to export otherwise infringing products in territories where we will obtain patent protection. In jurisdictions outside the United States where we will obtain patent protection, it may be more difficult to enforce a patent as compared to the United States. Competitor products may compete with our future products in jurisdictions where we do not or will not have issued or granted patents or where our issued or granted patent claims or other intellectual property rights are not sufficient to prevent competitor activities in these jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, make it difficult to enforce patents and such countries may not recognize other types of intellectual property protection, particularly relating to biopharmaceuticals. This could make it difficult for us to prevent the infringement of our patents or marketing of competing products in violation of our proprietary rights generally in certain jurisdictions. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial cost and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business.
We generally file a provisional patent application first (a priority filing) at the USPTO. An international application under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, or PCT, is usually filed within twelve months after the priority filing, at times with a United States filing. Based on the PCT filing, national and regional patent applications may be filed in various international jurisdictions, such as in Europe, Japan, Australia, Canada, and the United States. We have so far not filed for patent protection in all national and regional jurisdictions where such protection may be available. In addition, we may decide to abandon national and regional patent applications before they are granted. Finally, the grant proceeding of each national or regional patent is an independent proceeding which may lead to situations in which applications might in some jurisdictions be refused by the relevant registration authorities, while granted by others. It is also quite common that, depending on the country, various scopes of patent protection may be granted on the same therapeutic candidate, product, or technology. The laws of some jurisdictions do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws in the United States, and many companies have encountered significant difficulties in protecting and defending such rights in such jurisdictions. If we or our licensors encounter difficulties in protecting, or are otherwise precluded from effectively protecting, the intellectual property rights important for our business in such jurisdictions, the value of these rights may be diminished, and we may face additional competition from others in those jurisdictions. Many countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled to grant licenses to third parties. In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, the patent owner may have limited remedies, which could materially diminish the value of such patent. If we or any of our licensors are forced to grant a license to third parties with respect to any patents relevant to our business, our competitive position in the relevant jurisdiction may be impaired and our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.
We or our licensors, collaborators, or any future strategic partners may become subject to third party claims or litigation alleging infringement of patents or other proprietary rights or seeking to invalidate patents or other proprietary rights, and we may need to resort to litigation to protect or enforce our patents or other proprietary rights, all of which could be costly, time consuming, delay or prevent the development of our therapeutic candidates and commercialization of our therapeutic products, or put our patents and other proprietary rights at risk.
We or our licensors, licensees, collaborators, or any future strategic partners may be subject to third-party claims for infringement or misappropriation of patent or other proprietary rights. We are generally obligated under our license or

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collaboration agreements to indemnify and hold harmless our licensors, licensees, or collaborators for damages arising from intellectual property infringement by us. If we or our licensors, licensees, collaborators, or any future strategic partners are found to infringe a third-party patent or other intellectual property rights, we could be required to pay damages, potentially including treble damages, if we are found to have willfully infringed. In addition, we or our licensors, licensees, collaborators, or any future strategic partners may choose to seek, or be required to seek, a license from a third party, which may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all. Even if a license can be obtained on acceptable terms, the rights may be non-exclusive, which could give our competitors access to the same technology or intellectual property rights licensed to or from us. If we fail to obtain a required license, we or our licensee or collaborator, or any future licensee or collaborator, may be unable to effectively market therapeutic products based on our technology, which could limit our ability to generate revenue or achieve profitability and possibly prevent us from generating revenue sufficient to sustain our operations. In addition, we may find it necessary to pursue claims or initiate lawsuits to protect or enforce our patent or other intellectual property rights. The cost to us in defending or initiating any litigation or other proceeding relating to patent or other proprietary rights, even if resolved in our favor, could be substantial, and litigation would divert our management’s attention. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of complex patent litigation more effectively than we can because they have substantially greater resources. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings could delay our research and development efforts and limit our ability to continue our operations.
Although we do not believe our technology infringes the intellectual property rights of others, we are aware of one or more patents or patent applications that may relate to our technology, and third parties may assert against our claims alleging infringement of their intellectual property rights regardless of whether their claims have merit. Infringement claims could harm our reputation, may result in the expenditure of significant resources to defend and resolve such claims, and could require us to pay monetary damages if we are found to have infringed the intellectual property rights of others.
If we were to initiate legal proceedings against a third party to enforce a patent covering our technology, including therapeutic candidates and products, the defendant could counterclaim that our patent is invalid or unenforceable. In patent litigation in the United States, defendant counterclaims alleging invalidity or unenforceability are commonplace. Grounds for a validity challenge could be an alleged failure to meet any of several statutory requirements, for example, patent ineligibility, lack of novelty, lack of written description, obviousness, or non-enablement. Grounds for an unenforceability assertion could be an allegation someone connected with prosecution of the patent withheld relevant information from the USPTO, or made a misleading statement, during prosecution. The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability during patent litigation is unpredictable. With respect to the validity question, for example, we cannot be certain there is no invalidating prior art, of which we and the patent examiner were unaware during prosecution. If a defendant were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity or unenforceability, we would lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection on our technology, including therapeutic candidates and products. Such a loss of patent protection could have a material adverse impact on our business. Patents and other intellectual property rights also will not protect our technology, including therapeutic candidates and products, if competitors design around our protected technology, including therapeutic candidates and products, without legally infringing our patents or other intellectual property rights.
It is also possible we have failed to identify relevant third-party patents or applications. For example, patent applications in the United States and elsewhere are published approximately 18 months after the earliest filing for which priority is claimed, with such earliest filing date being commonly referred to as the priority date. Therefore, patent applications covering our technology, including therapeutic candidates and products, could have been filed by others without our knowledge. Additionally, pending patent applications which have been published can, subject to certain limitations, be later amended in a manner that could cover our technology, including therapeutic candidates and products. Third party intellectual property rights holders may also actively bring infringement claims against us. We cannot guarantee we will be able to successfully settle or otherwise resolve such infringement claims. If we are unable to successfully settle future claims on terms acceptable to us, we may be required to engage in or continue costly, unpredictable, and time-consuming litigation and may be prevented from, or experience substantial delays in, marketing our technology, including therapeutic candidates and products. If we fail in any such dispute, in addition to being forced to pay damages, we may be temporarily or permanently prohibited from commercializing our technology, including a therapeutic product, held to be infringing. We might, if possible, also be forced to redesign therapeutic candidates or products so we no longer infringe the third-party intellectual property rights. Any of these events, even if we were ultimately to prevail, could require us to divert substantial financial and management resources we would otherwise be able to devote to our business.

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If we fail to comply with our obligations under any license, collaboration, or other agreements, we may be required to pay damages and could lose intellectual property rights necessary for developing and protecting our technology, including our platform technology, therapeutic candidates, and therapeutic products, or we could lose certain rights to grant sublicenses, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and business prospects.
Our current licenses impose, and any future licenses we enter into are likely to impose, various development, commercialization, funding, milestone, royalty, diligence, sublicensing, insurance, patent prosecution and enforcement, and other obligations on us. If we breach any of these obligations, or use the intellectual property licensed to us in an unauthorized manner, we may be required to pay damages and the licensor may have the right to terminate the license, which could result in us being unable to develop, manufacture, and sell or offer to sell products covered by the licensed technology or enable a competitor to gain access to the licensed technology. Moreover, our licensors may own or control intellectual property that has not been licensed to us and, as a result, we may be subject to claims, regardless of their merit, that we are infringing or otherwise violating the licensor’s rights. In addition, while we cannot currently determine the amount of the royalty obligations we would be required to pay on future sales of licensed products, if any, the amounts may be significant. The amount of our future royalty obligations will depend on the technology and intellectual property we use in therapeutic products we successfully develop and commercialize, if any. Therefore, even if we successfully develop and commercialize therapeutic products, we may be unable to achieve or maintain profitability.
If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be harmed.
In addition to seeking patent protection for certain aspects of our technology, including platform technology and therapeutic candidates and products, we also consider trade secrets, including confidential and unpatented know-how, important to the maintenance of our competitive position. We protect trade secrets and confidential and unpatented know-how, in part, by entering into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to such knowledge, such as our employees, corporate collaborators, outside scientific collaborators, CROs, contract manufacturers, consultants, advisors, and other third parties. We also enter into confidentiality and invention or patent assignment agreements with our employees and consultants obligating them to maintain confidentiality and assign their inventions to us. Despite these efforts, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. We also cannot guarantee that we have entered into such agreements with each party that may have or has had access to our trade secrets or proprietary technology and processes. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive, and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, some courts in the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor, we would have no right to prevent them from using that technology or information to compete with us. If any of our trade secrets were to be disclosed to or independently developed by a competitor, our competitive position would be harmed.
We are also subject both in the United States and outside the United States to various regulatory schemes regarding requests for the information we provide to regulatory authorities, which may include, in whole or in part, trade secrets or confidential commercial information. While we are likely to be notified in advance of any disclosure of such information and would likely object to such disclosure, there can be no assurance our challenge to the request would be successful.
We may be in the future subject to claims we or our employees or consultants have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of our employees’ or consultants’ former employers or their clients. These claims may be costly to defend and if we do not successfully do so, we may be required to pay monetary damages, may be prohibited from using some of our research and development and may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel.
Many of our employees were previously employed at universities or biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our current and potential competitors. We may receive correspondence from other companies alleging the improper use or disclosure, and have received, and may in the future receive, correspondence from other companies regarding the use or disclosure, by certain of our employees who have previously been employed elsewhere in our industry, including with our competitors, of their former employer’s trade secrets or other proprietary information. Responding to these allegations can be costly and disruptive to our business, even when the allegations are without merit, and can be a distraction to management. We may be subject to claims in the future that our employees have, or we have, inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of their former employers. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending current or future claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights, personnel, or the ability to use some of our research and development. A loss of intellectual property, key research personnel, or their work product could hamper our ability to commercialize, or prevent us from commercializing, our therapeutic candidates, which could severely harm our business. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.

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If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, then we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest and our business may be materially and adversely affected.
Our trademarks or trade names may be challenged, infringed, circumvented, or declared generic or determined to be infringing on other marks. Any trademark litigation could be expensive. We may not be able to protect our rights to these trademarks and trade names or may be forced to stop using these names, which we need for name recognition by potential partners or customers in our markets of interest. If we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, we may not be able to compete effectively, and our business may be materially and adversely affected.
Third parties may independently develop similar or superior technology.
There can be no assurance others will not independently develop, or have not already developed, similar or more advanced technologies than our technology or that others will not design around, or have not already designed around, aspects of our technology or our trade secrets developed therefrom. If third parties develop technology similar or superior to our technology, or they successfully design around our current or future technology, our competitive position, business prospects, and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Breaches of our internal computer systems, or those of our contractors, vendors, or consultants, may place our patents or proprietary rights at risk.
The loss of clinical or preclinical data or data from any future clinical trial involving our technology, including therapeutic candidates and products, could result in delays in our development and regulatory filing efforts and significantly increase our costs. In addition, theft or other exposure of data may interfere with our ability to protect our intellectual property, including trade secrets, and other information critical to our operations. We have experienced in the past, and may experience in the future, unauthorized intrusions into our internal computer systems, including portions of our internal computer systems storing information related to our platform technology, therapeutic candidates and products, and we can provide no assurances that certain sensitive and proprietary information relating to one or more of our therapeutic candidates or products has not been, or will not in the future be, compromised. Although we have invested significant resources to enhance the security of our computer systems, there can be no assurances we will not experience additional unauthorized intrusions into our computer systems, or those of our CROs, vendors, contractors, and consultants, that we will successfully detect future unauthorized intrusions in a timely manner, or that future unauthorized intrusions will not result in material adverse effects on our financial condition, reputation, or business prospects. Payments related to the elimination of ransomware may materially affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Certain data breaches must also be reported to affected individuals and the government, and in some cases to the media, under provisions of HIPAA, as amended by HITECH, other U.S. federal and state law, and requirements of non-U.S. jurisdictions, including the European Union Data Protection Directive, and financial penalties may also apply.
Risks Related to Government Regulation
We may be unable to obtain U.S. or foreign regulatory approval and, as a result, may be unable to commercialize our therapeutic candidates.
Our therapeutic candidates are subject to extensive governmental regulations relating to, among other things, research, development, testing, manufacture, quality control, approval, labeling, packaging, promotion, storage, record-keeping, advertising, distribution, sampling, pricing, sales and marketing, safety, post-approval monitoring and reporting, and export and import of drugs. Rigorous preclinical testing and clinical trials and an extensive regulatory approval process are required to be completed successfully in the United States and in many foreign jurisdictions before a new therapeutic can be marketed. Satisfaction of these and other regulatory requirements is costly, time consuming, uncertain, and subject to unanticipated delays. We have not obtained regulatory approval for any therapeutic candidates, and it is possible none of the therapeutic candidates we may develop will obtain the regulatory approvals necessary for us or our collaborators to begin selling them.
We have very limited experience in conducting and managing the clinical trials necessary to obtain regulatory approvals, including approval by the FDA as well as foreign regulatory authorities, such as the EMA. The time required to obtain FDA and foreign regulatory approvals is unpredictable but typically takes many years following the commencement of clinical trials, depending upon the type, complexity, and novelty of the therapeutic candidate, and at the substantial discretion of the regulatory authorities. The standards the FDA and its foreign counterparts use when regulating us are not always applied predictably or uniformly and can change. Any analysis we perform of data from preclinical and clinical activities is subject to confirmation and interpretation by regulatory authorities, who could delay, limit, or prevent regulatory approval. We may also encounter unexpected delays or increased costs due to new government regulations, future legislation or administrative action,

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or from changes in the policy of FDA or foreign regulatory authorities during the period of product development, clinical trials, and regulatory review by the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities. It is impossible to predict whether legislative changes will be enacted, or whether FDA or foreign, regulations, guidance, or interpretations will be changed, or what the impact of such changes, if any, may be.
Because the therapeutic candidates we are developing may represent a new class of therapeutics, we are not aware of any definitive policies, practices, or gu