Document


As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 8, 2020
Registration No. 333-    


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM S‑3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
20-8969493
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
188 East Blaine Street, Suite 200
Seattle, WA 98102
(206) 788-4545
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Mitchell H. Gold, M.D.
Executive Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
188 East Blaine Street, Suite 200
Seattle, WA 98102
(206) 788-4545
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:

Paul Rickey
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc.
188 East Blaine Street, Suite 200
Seattle, WA 98102
(206) 788-4545
Patrick J. Schultheis
Michael Nordtvedt
Bryan D. King
Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati,
Professional Corporation
701 Fifth Avenue, Suite 5100
Seattle, WA 98104
(206) 883-2500

From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.
(Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public)
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box:
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.





Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of each class
of securities to be registered
 
Amount
to be
 
registered(1)(2)
 
Proposed
maximum
offering
price per security
(3)
 
Proposed
maximum
aggregate
offering price
(3)(4)
 
Amount of
registration fee
(5)
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share
 
      
 

 

 

Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share
 
      
 

 

 

Debt Securities
 
      
 

 

 

Depositary Shares
 
      
 

 

 

Warrants
 
      
 

 

 

Subscription Rights
 
      
 

 

 

Purchase Contracts
 
      
 

 

 

Units
 
      
 

 

 

Total
 
      
 

 
      $60,000,000

 
$7,788


(1)
The securities registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of (a) shares of common stock, (b) shares of preferred stock, (c) debt securities, (d) depositary shares, (e) warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities of the registrant, (f) subscription rights to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities of the registrant, (g) purchase contracts, and (h) units consisting of some or all of these securities, as may be sold from time to time by the registrant. There are also being registered hereunder an indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as shall be issuable upon conversion, exchange or exercise of any securities that provide for such issuance.
(2)
Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, this registration statement shall also cover any additional shares of the registrant’s securities that become issuable by reason of any share splits, share dividends or similar transactions.
(3)
The proposed maximum offering price per security and proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S‑3 under the Securities Act. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable on exercise, conversion or exchange of other securities, or that are issued in units.
(4)
Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee. Subject to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, the aggregate maximum offering price of all securities issued by the registrant pursuant to this registration statement will not exceed $60,000,000.
(5)
Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.


The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.









The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. The securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to Completion, dated July 8, 2020
PROSPECTUS
https://cdn.kscope.io/fcbf637dc5b30a0d0abbd8d92bc488a8-alpnforms3_image1.jpg
Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc.

$60,000,000
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Depositary Shares
Warrants
Subscription Rights
Purchase Contracts
Units
We may issue securities from time to time in one or more offerings, in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus, which will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest. The aggregate offering price of the securities we sell pursuant to this prospectus will not exceed $60,000,000.
The securities may be sold directly to you, through agents or through underwriters and dealers. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell the securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of those securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from that sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “ALPN.” Each prospectus supplement will indicate whether the securities offered thereby will be listed on any securities exchange. As of June 19, 2020, the aggregate market value of our common stock held by our non-affiliates, as calculated pursuant to the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission, was approximately $61.7 million, based upon 5,099,674 shares of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates at the per share price of $12.10, the closing sale price of our common stock on June 19, 2020. Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S‑3, in no event will we sell securities in a public offering with a value exceeding more than one‑third of our “public float” (the market value of our common stock held by our non-affiliates) in any 12‑month period so long as our public float remains below $75.0 million. We have not sold any securities in reliance on General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S‑3 during the 12 calendar months prior to and including the date of this prospectus.
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined under the federal securities laws, and, as such, may elect to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements for this and future filings. We will provide information in any applicable prospectus supplement regarding any listing of securities other than shares of our common stock on any securities exchange.
Investing in these securities involves risks. Please carefully read the information under the headings “Risk Factors” beginning on page 4 of this prospectus and “Item 1A – Risk Factors” of our most recent report on Form 10-K or 10-Q that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus before you invest in our securities.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is         , 2020.





TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
Page


i




ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings.
This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities that may be offered. Each time we sell securities, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information that is different from that contained, or incorporated by reference, in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

ii




PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information that is presented in greater detail elsewhere, or incorporated by reference, in this prospectus. It does not contain all of the information that may be important to you and your investment decision. Before investing in our securities, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including the matters set forth under the section of this prospectus captioned “Risk Factors” and the financial statements and related notes and other information that we incorporate by reference herein, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K and our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q. Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus to “Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc.,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer, collectively, to Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries taken as a whole.
Company Overview
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company dedicated to discovering and developing innovative, protein-based immunotherapies targeting the immune synapse to treat cancer and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Our proprietary scientific platform converts native immune system proteins into differentiated, multi-targeted therapeutics potentially capable of modulating the human immune system and significantly improving outcomes in patients with serious diseases.

ALPN-101, our furthest advanced autoimmune / inflammatory disease program, is a dual inducible T-cell costimulatory, or ICOS, and cluster of differentiation 28, or CD28, antagonist intended for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Preclinical studies have demonstrated efficacy in models of systemic lupus erythematosus, or SLE, Sjögren’s syndrome, or SjS, arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, uveitis, and graft versus host disease, or GVHD. In June 2020, we entered into an Option and License agreement with AbbVie Ireland Unlimited Company, a subsidiary of AbbVie Inc., or AbbVie, which granted to AbbVie an exclusive option to take an exclusive license to ALPN-101. Under the terms of the agreement, we received an upfront payment of $60 million, and are eligible to receive up to an aggregate of $805 million for AbbVie’s exercise of the option and certain development, regulatory and commercial milestones. In addition, we are eligible to receive tiered royalties on net sales of ALPN-101.

ALPN-303 is a dual B cell cytokine antagonist being developed for B cell-mediated autoimmune / inflammatory diseases. Engineered using our proprietary directed evolution platform, ALPN-303 is a potent inhibitor of the pleiotropic B cell cytokines BAFF (B cell activating factor also known as BLyS; TALL-1; CD257 or TNFSF13B) and APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand, also known as CD256 or TNFSF13) which may play key roles in certain autoimmune / inflammatory disease through their regulation of B cell development, differentiation, and survival. Preclinical activities are underway to enable clinical trials.

Our lead oncology program is ALPN-202, a conditional CD28 costimulator and dual checkpoint inhibitor intended for the treatment of cancer. Preclinical in vivo data have demonstrated monotherapy efficacy in tumor models superior to approved therapies. In addition, ALPN-202 has a unique immuno-modulatory profile and has demonstrated evidence of anti-tumor immunity in preclinical models. Based on ALPN-202’s efficacy in preclinical models and favorable nonclinical safety and development profile, we have recently initiated NEON-1, a Phase 1 dose escalation and expansion study in patients with advanced malignancies.

Our scientific platform has also generated immune modulatory proteins with the potential of improving engineered cellular therapies, or ECT, such as chimeric antigen receptor T cells, or CAR-T, T cell receptor-engineered T cells, or TCR-T, and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, or TILs. In May 2019, we signed a collaboration and license agreement with Adaptimmune Therapeutics plc, or Adaptimmune, to develop next-generation SPEARTM T-cell products which incorporate our secreted and transmembrane immunomodulatory protein (termed SIP™ and TIP™) technology. We intend to continue to leverage our existing pipeline and platform to actively explore and evaluate potential value-creating partnering opportunities.

Corporate Information
In July 2017, Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc. completed its business combination with Nivalis Therapeutics, Inc., a publicly held company. In connection with the merger, Nivalis Therapeutics, Inc. changed its name to Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc. Nivalis Therapeutics, Inc. was incorporated in Delaware in March 2007. Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc. (prior to its business combination with Nivalis Therapeutics, Inc.) was incorporated in Delaware in December 2014.
Our principal executive office is located at 188 East Blaine Street, Suite 200, Seattle WA, 98102. Our telephone number is (206) 788-4545. Our website is www.alpineimmunesciences.com. Information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus.

1




The Securities That May Be Offered
We may offer or sell common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares, debt securities, warrants, subscription rights, purchase contracts and units in one or more offerings and in any combination. The aggregate offering price of the securities we sell pursuant to this prospectus will not exceed $60,000,000, subject to any applicable limits prescribed by General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3. Each time securities are offered with this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and terms of the securities being offered and the net proceeds we expect to receive from that sale.
The securities may be sold to or through underwriters, dealers or agents or directly to purchasers or as otherwise set forth in the section of this prospectus captioned “Plan of Distribution.” Each prospectus supplement will set forth the names of any underwriters, dealers, agents or other entities involved in the sale of securities described in that prospectus supplement and any applicable fee, commission or discount arrangements with them.
Common Stock
We may offer shares of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, either alone or underlying other registered securities convertible into our common stock. Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available for the payment of dividends, subject to rights, if any, of preferred stockholders. Currently, we do not pay a cash dividend. Each holder of common stock is entitled to one vote per share. The holders of common stock have no preemptive rights.
Preferred Stock
Our board of directors has the authority, subject to limitations prescribed by Delaware law, to issue preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each series, and to fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each series and any of its qualifications, limitations or restrictions, in each case without further vote or action by our stockholders. Each series of preferred stock offered by us will be more fully described in the particular prospectus supplement that will accompany this prospectus, including redemption provisions, rights in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, voting rights and rights to convert into common stock.
Depositary Shares
We may issue fractional shares of preferred stock that will be represented by depositary shares and depositary receipts.
Each series of depositary shares or depositary receipts offered by us will be more fully described in the particular prospectus supplement that will accompany this prospectus, including redemption provisions, rights in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, voting rights and rights to convert into common stock.
Debt Securities
We may offer secured or unsecured obligations in the form of one or more series of senior or subordinated debt. The senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities are together referred to in this prospectus as the “debt securities.” The subordinated debt securities generally will be entitled to payment only after payment of our senior debt. Senior debt generally includes all debt for money borrowed by us, except debt that is stated in the instrument governing the terms of that debt to be not senior to, or to have the same rank in right of payment as, or to be expressly junior to, the subordinated debt securities. We may issue debt securities that are convertible into shares of our common stock.
The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and a trustee to be specified in an accompanying prospectus supplement. We have summarized the general features of the debt securities to be governed by the indenture in this prospectus and the form of indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. We encourage you to read the indenture.
Warrants
We may offer warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. We may offer warrants independently or together with other securities.

2




Subscription Rights
We may offer subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. These subscription rights may be offered independently or together with any other security offered hereby and may or may not be transferable by the stockholder receiving the subscription rights in such offering.
Purchase Contracts
We may offer purchase contracts, including contracts obligating holders or us to purchase from the other a specific or variable number of securities at a future date or dates.
Units
We may offer units comprised of one or more of the other classes of securities described in this prospectus in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit.

3




RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. The prospectus supplement applicable to each offering of our securities will contain a discussion of the risks applicable to an investment in our securities. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific factors discussed under the section in the applicable prospectus supplement captioned “Risk Factors,” together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in the prospectus supplement or appearing or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should also consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed under “Part I—Item 1A—Risk Factors” of our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in “Part II—Item 1A—Risk Factors” in our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed subsequent to such Form 10-K that are incorporated herein by reference, as may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations.

4




FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus, each prospectus supplement and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus and each prospectus supplement contain certain statements that constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. The words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “expect,” “could,” “would,” “project,” “plan,” “potentially,” “likely,” and similar expressions and variations thereof are intended to identify forward-looking statements, but are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements. Those statements appear in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated herein and therein by reference, particularly in the sections captioned “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and include statements regarding the intent, belief or current expectations of our management that are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions. You are cautioned that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties, and that actual results may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors.
Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Except as required by applicable law, including the securities laws of the United States and the rules and regulations of the SEC, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein after we distribute this prospectus, whether as a result of any new information, future events or otherwise.
In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and although we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted a thorough inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.
This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus may contain market data that we obtain from industry sources. These sources do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of the information. Although we believe that our industry sources are reliable, we do not independently verify the information. The market data may include projections that are based on a number of other projections. While we believe these assumptions to be reasonable and sound as of the date of this prospectus, actual results may differ from the projections.

5




USE OF PROCEEDS
We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds to us from the sale of our securities under this prospectus. Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, we currently expect to use the net proceeds that we receive from this offering for working capital and other general corporate purposes. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire, license or invest in complementary products, technologies or businesses; however, we currently have no agreements or commitments to complete any such transaction. The expected use of net proceeds of this offering represents our current intentions based on our present plans and business conditions. We cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to be received upon the closing of this offering. Pending these uses, we plan to invest the net proceeds of this offering in short- and intermediate-term, interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government.

6




DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The description of our capital stock is incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.8 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 30, 2020.

7




DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus. We will also indicate in the supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities.
We may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. Debt securities may be our senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series.
The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and a trustee to be specified in an accompanying prospectus supplement. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. The form of the indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and you should read the indenture for provisions that may be important to you. In the summary below, we have included references to the section numbers of the indenture so that you can easily locate these provisions. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined herein have the meanings specified in the indenture.
General
The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our board of directors and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a resolution of our board of directors, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series (including any pricing supplement or term sheet).
We can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will set forth in a prospectus supplement (including any pricing supplement or term sheet) relating to any series of debt securities being offered the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, if applicable:
whether the debt securities of the series are senior or subordinated and if such debt securities are subordinated, the subordination provisions applicable to such series of debt securities;
the offering price of the debt securities of the series;
the title of the debt securities of the series;
any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of the series which may be authenticated and delivered;
the person to whom any interest on a debt security of the series shall be payable, if other than the person in whose name that debt securities (or one or more predecessor debt securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest;
the date or dates on which the principal of any debt securities of the series is payable;
the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) at which any debt securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which any such interest shall accrue, the interest payment dates on which any such interest shall be payable and the regular record date for any such interest payable on any interest payment date (or the method for determining the dates and rates);
the place or places where the principal of and any premium and interest on any debt securities of the series shall be payable;
the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which any debt securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at our option and, if other than by a resolution of our board of directors, the manner in which any election by us to redeem the debt securities shall be evidenced;

8




the obligation, if any, of us to redeem or purchase any debt securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund or similar provisions or any redemption or purchase at the option of the holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which any debt securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;
if issued other than in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which any debt securities of the series shall be issuable;
if the amount of principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities of the series may be determined with reference to an index or pursuant to a formula, the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;
if other than the currency of the United States of America, the currency, currencies or currency units in which the principal of or any premium or interest on any Securities of the series shall be payable and the manner of determining the equivalent thereof in the currency of the United States of America for any purpose;
if the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities of the series is to be payable, at our election or the election of the holder thereof, in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such debt securities are stated to be payable, the currency, currencies or currency units in which the principal of or any premium or interest on such debt securities as to which such election is made shall be payable, the periods within which and the terms and conditions upon which such election is to be made and the amount so payable (or the manner in which such amount shall be determined);
the percentage of the principal amount at which the debt securities will be issued, and, if other than the entire principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of any Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;
if the principal amount payable at the maturity of any debt securities of the series will not be determinable as of any one or more dates prior to the maturity, the amount which shall be deemed to be the principal amount of such debt securities as of any such date for any purpose thereunder or hereunder, including the principal amount thereof which shall be due and payable upon any maturity or which shall be deemed to be outstanding as of any date prior to the maturity (or, in any such case, the manner in which such amount deemed to be the principal amount shall be determined);
that the debt securities of the series, in whole or any specified part, shall be defeasible or any other defeasance provisions applicable to any Securities of the series, and, if other than by a resolution of our board of directors, the manner in which any election by us to defease such debt securities shall be evidenced;
the terms of any right to convert or exchange debt securities of the series, including, without limitation, the conversion or exchange price, the conversion or exchange period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, at the option of the holders thereof or at our option, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange if such series of debt securities are redeemed, if applicable;
that any debt securities of the series shall be issuable in whole or in part in the form of one or more global securities and, in such case, the respective depositaries for such global debt securities, the form of any legend or legends which shall be borne by any such global debt security and any circumstances in which any such global debt security may be exchanged in whole or in part for debt securities registered, and any transfer of such global debt security in whole or in part may be registered, in the name or names of persons other than the depositary for such global debt security or a nominee thereof;
any change in the right of the trustee or the requisite holders of such debt securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable upon an event of default;
any addition to or deletion of or change in the events of default or covenants or other provisions which apply to debt securities of the series or do not apply to the debt securities of the series;
any authenticating agents, paying agents, security registrars or such other agents necessary in connection with the issuance of the debt securities of such series, including, without limitation, exchange rate agents and calculation agents;

9




the terms of any security that will be provided for a series of debt securities, including any provisions regarding the circumstances under which collateral may be released or substituted;
if applicable, the terms of any guaranties for the debt securities and any circumstances under which there may be additional obligors on the debt securities;
any provisions granting special rights to holders when a specified event occurs;
any provisions with respect to any special interest premium or other premium;
any special tax provisions that apply to any series of debt securities;
with respect to any series of debt securities that do not bear interest, the date for any required reports to the trustee;
any and all additional, eliminated or changed terms that will apply to such series of debt securities; and
any other terms of the series of debt securities.
We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.
If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of and any premium and interest on any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Transfer and Exchange
Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, which we refer to as the depositary, or a nominee of the depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as set forth under the heading “Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System” below, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.
Certificated Debt Securities
You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange.
You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, premium and interest on certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder. 
Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System
Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the depositary, and registered in the name of the depositary or a nominee of the depositary.
Covenants
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities.

10




No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control
Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions which may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.
Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets
We may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to any person, which we refer to as a successor person, unless:
we are the surviving corporation or the successor person (if other than us) is a corporation organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indenture; and
immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.
Notwithstanding the above, any of our subsidiaries may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to us.
Events of Default
“Event of Default” means with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:
default in the payment of any interest upon any debt security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of the payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to the expiration of the 30-day period);
default in the payment of principal of any security of that series at its maturity;
default in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, when and as due by the terms of a debt security of that series;
default in the performance or breach of any other covenant or warranty by us in the indenture (other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice from the trustee, or we and the trustee receive written notice from the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series as provided in the indenture;
certain voluntary or involuntary events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of us; and
any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series that is described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
No Event of Default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of certain Events of Default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain indebtedness of ours or our subsidiaries outstanding from time to time.
We will provide the trustee written notice of any Default or Event of Default within 30 days of becoming aware of the occurrence of such Default or Event of Default, which notice will describe in reasonable detail the status of such Default or Event of Default and what action we are taking or propose to take in respect thereof.
If an Event of Default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal of (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. In the case of an Event of Default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the principal (or such specified amount) of and accrued and

11




unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may rescind and annul the acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an Event of Default.
The indenture provides that the trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power. Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series.
No holder of any debt security of any series will have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:
that holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to debt securities of that series; and
the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and offered indemnity or security satisfactory to the trustee, to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee, and the trustee has not received from the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a direction inconsistent with that request and has failed to institute the proceeding within 60 days.
Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, premium and any interest on that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment.
The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the securities of any series and if it is known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee shall send to each securityholder of the securities of that series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a responsible officer of the trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any Default or Event of Default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities.
Modification and Waiver
We and the trustee may modify, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security, for any of the following purposes:
to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;
to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets”;
to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities;
to add guarantees with respect to debt securities of any series or secure debt securities of any series;
to surrender any of our rights or powers under the indenture;
to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any series;

12




to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary;
to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities;
to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;
to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee;
to conform the indenture to the description of the debt securities set forth in the prospectus supplement for such series of debt securities; or
to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.
We may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments. We may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:
reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;
reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security;
reduce the principal of or premium on or change the fixed maturity of any debt security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities;
reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;
waive a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or interest on any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);
make the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security;
make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, premium and interest on those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments; or
waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security.
Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.
Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances
Legal Defeasance
The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the irrevocable deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, government obligations of the government that

13




issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money or U.S. government obligations in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.
This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred.
Defeasance of Certain Covenants
The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:
we may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement; and
any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series.
We refer to this as covenant defeasance. The conditions include:
depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities;
such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under the indenture or any other agreement to which we are a party;
no Default or Event of Default with respect to the applicable series of debt securities shall have occurred or is continuing on the date of such deposit; and
delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred.
No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Stockholders
None of our past, present or future directors, officers, employees or stockholders, as such, will have any liability for any of our obligations under the debt securities or the indenture or for any claim based on, or in respect or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. By accepting a debt security, each holder waives and releases all such liability. This waiver and release is part of the consideration for the issue of the debt securities. However, this waiver and release may not be effective to waive liabilities under U.S. federal securities laws, and it is the view of the SEC that such a waiver is against public policy.

14




Governing Law
The indenture and the debt securities, including any claim or controversy arising out of or relating to the indenture or the securities, will be governed by the laws of the State of New York.
The indenture will provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably waive, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to the indenture, the debt securities or the transactions contemplated thereby.
The indenture will provide that any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon the indenture or the transactions contemplated thereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the City of New York, and we, the trustee and the holder of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. The indenture will further provide that service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail (to the extent allowed under any applicable statute or rule of court) to such party’s address set forth in the indenture will be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The indenture will further provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the courts specified above and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim any such suit, action or other proceeding has been brought in an inconvenient forum.

15




DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES
General
We may, at our option, elect to offer fractional shares of preferred stock, or depositary shares, rather than full shares of preferred stock. If we do, we will issue to the public receipts, called depositary receipts, for depositary shares, each of which will represent a fraction, to be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, of a share of a particular series of preferred stock. Unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement, each owner of a depositary share will be entitled, in proportion to the applicable fractional interest in a share of preferred stock represented by the depositary share, to all the rights and preferences of the preferred stock represented by the depositary share. Those rights include dividend, voting, redemption, conversion and liquidation rights.
The shares of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares will be deposited with a bank or trust company selected by us to act as depositary under a deposit agreement between us, the depositary and the holders of the depositary receipts. The depositary will be the transfer agent, registrar and dividend disbursing agent for the depositary shares.
The depositary shares will be evidenced by depositary receipts issued pursuant to the depositary agreement. Holders of depositary receipts agree to be bound by the deposit agreement, which requires holders to take certain actions such as filing proof of residence and paying certain charges.
The summary of terms of the depositary shares contained in this prospectus is not complete. You should refer to the form of the deposit agreement, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and the certificate of designation for the applicable series of preferred stock that are, or will be, filed with the SEC.
Dividends and Other Distributions
The depositary will distribute all cash dividends or other cash distributions, if any, received in respect of the preferred stock underlying the depositary shares to the record holders of depositary shares in proportion to the numbers of depositary shares owned by those holders on the relevant record date. The relevant record date for depositary shares will be the same date as the record date for the underlying preferred stock.
If there is a distribution other than in cash, the depositary will distribute property (including securities) received by it to the record holders of depositary shares, unless the depositary determines that it is not feasible to make the distribution. If this occurs, the depositary may, with our approval, adopt another method for the distribution, including selling the property and distributing the net proceeds from the sale to the holders.
Liquidation Preference
If a series of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares has a liquidation preference, in the event of the voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of us, holders of depositary shares will be entitled to receive the fraction of the liquidation preference accorded each share of the applicable series of preferred stock, as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Withdrawal of Stock
Unless the related depositary shares have been previously called for redemption, upon surrender of the depositary receipts at the office of the depositary, the holder of the depositary shares will be entitled to delivery, at the office of the depositary to or upon his or her order, of the number of whole shares of the preferred stock and any money or other property represented by the depositary shares. If the depositary receipts delivered by the holder evidence a number of depositary shares in excess of the number of depositary shares representing the number of whole shares of preferred stock to be withdrawn, the depositary will deliver to the holder at the same time a new depositary receipt evidencing the excess number of depositary shares. In no event will the depositary deliver fractional shares of preferred stock upon surrender of depositary receipts. Holders of preferred stock thus withdrawn may not thereafter deposit those shares under the deposit agreement or receive depositary receipts evidencing depositary shares therefor.
Redemption of Depositary Shares
Whenever we redeem shares of preferred stock held by the depositary, the depositary will redeem as of the same redemption date the number of depositary shares representing shares of the preferred stock so redeemed, so long as we have paid in full to the depositary the redemption price of the preferred stock to be redeemed plus an amount equal to any

16




accumulated and unpaid dividends on the preferred stock to the date fixed for redemption. The redemption price per depositary share will be equal to the redemption price and any other amounts per share payable on the preferred stock multiplied by the fraction of a share of preferred stock represented by one depositary share. If less than all the depositary shares are to be redeemed, the depositary shares to be redeemed will be selected by lot or pro rata or by any other equitable method as may be determined by the depositary.
After the date fixed for redemption, depositary shares called for redemption will no longer be deemed to be outstanding and all rights of the holders of depositary shares will cease, except the right to receive the monies payable upon redemption and any money or other property to which the holders of the depositary shares were entitled upon redemption upon surrender to the depositary of the depositary receipts evidencing the depositary shares.
Voting the Preferred Stock
Upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of the preferred stock are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the information contained in the notice of meeting to the record holders of the depositary receipts relating to that preferred stock. The record date for the depositary receipts relating to the preferred stock will be the same date as the record date for the preferred stock. Each record holder of the depositary shares on the record date will be entitled to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the number of shares of preferred stock represented by that holder’s depositary shares. The depositary will endeavor, insofar as practicable, to vote the number of shares of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares in accordance with those instructions, and we will agree to take all action that may be deemed necessary by the depositary in order to enable the depositary to do so. The depositary will not vote any shares of preferred stock except to the extent that it receives specific instructions from the holders of depositary shares representing that number of shares of preferred stock.
Charges of the Depositary
We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of the depositary arrangements. We will pay charges of the depositary in connection with the initial deposit of the preferred stock and any redemption of the preferred stock. Holders of depositary receipts will pay transfer, income and other taxes and governmental charges and such other charges (including those in connection with the receipt and distribution of dividends, the sale or exercise of rights, the withdrawal of the preferred stock and the transferring, splitting or grouping of depositary receipts) as are expressly provided in the deposit agreement to be for their accounts. If these charges have not been paid by the holders of depositary receipts, the depositary may refuse to transfer depositary shares, withhold dividends and distributions and sell the depositary shares evidenced by the depositary receipt.
Amendment and Termination of the Deposit Agreement
The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and any provision of the deposit agreement may be amended by agreement between us and the depositary. However, any amendment that materially and adversely alters the rights of the holders of depositary shares, other than fee changes, will not be effective unless the amendment has been approved by the holders of a majority of the outstanding depositary shares. The deposit agreement may be terminated by the depositary or us only if:
all outstanding depositary shares have been redeemed; or
there has been a final distribution of the preferred stock in connection with our dissolution and such distribution has been made to all the holders of depositary shares.
Resignation and Removal of Depositary
The depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so, and we may remove the depositary at any time. Any resignation or removal of the depositary will take effect upon our appointment of a successor depositary and its acceptance of such appointment. The successor depositary must be appointed within 60 days after delivery of the notice of resignation or removal and must be a bank or trust company having its principal office in the United States and having the requisite combined capital and surplus as set forth in the applicable agreement.
Notices
The depositary will forward to holders of depositary receipts all notices, reports and other communications, including proxy solicitation materials received from us, that are delivered to the depositary and that we are required to furnish to the

17




holders of the preferred stock. In addition, the depositary will make available for inspection by holders of depositary receipts at the principal office of the depositary, and at such other places as it may from time to time deem advisable, any reports and communications we deliver to the depositary as the holder of preferred stock.
Limitation of Liability
Neither we nor the depositary will be liable if either is prevented or delayed by law or any circumstance beyond its control in performing its obligations. Our obligations and those of the depositary will be limited to performance in good faith of our and its duties thereunder. We and the depositary will not be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary shares or preferred stock unless satisfactory indemnity is furnished. We and the depositary may rely upon written advice of counsel or accountants, on information provided by persons presenting preferred stock for deposit, holders of depositary receipts or other persons believed to be competent to give such information and on documents believed to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties.

18




DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
We may issue warrants to purchase debt securities, preferred stock or common stock. We may offer warrants separately or together with one or more additional warrants, debt securities, preferred stock, depositary shares or common stock, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we issue warrants as part of a unit, the applicable prospectus supplement will specify whether those warrants may be separated from the other securities in the unit prior to the expiration date of the warrants. The applicable prospectus supplement will also describe the following terms of any warrants:
the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the offering price at which we will issue, the warrants;
the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;
the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;
whether the warrants are to be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units;
whether the warrants will be issued in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;
any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;
the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;
the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;
the designation and terms of any equity securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;
the designation, aggregate principal amount, currency and terms of any debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;
if applicable, the designation and terms of the debt securities, preferred stock, depositary shares or common stock with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each security;
if applicable, the date from and after which any warrants issued as part of a unit and the related debt securities, preferred stock, depositary shares or common stock will be separately transferable;
the number of shares of preferred stock or the number of shares of common stock purchasable upon exercise of a warrant and the price at which those shares may be purchased;
if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;
information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;
the antidilution provisions, and other provisions for changes to or adjustment in the exercise price, of the warrants, if any;
any redemption or call provisions; and
any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange or exercise of the warrants.

19




DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS
We may issue subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. These subscription rights may be offered independently or together with any other security offered hereby and may or may not be transferable by the stockholder receiving the subscription rights in such offering. In connection with any offering of subscription rights, we may enter into a standby arrangement with one or more underwriters or other purchasers pursuant to which the underwriters or other purchasers may be required to purchase any securities remaining unsubscribed for after such offering.
The prospectus supplement relating to any subscription rights we offer, if any, will, to the extent applicable, include specific terms relating to the offering, including some or all of the following:
the price, if any, for the subscription rights;
the exercise price payable for our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon the exercise of the subscription rights;
the number of subscription rights to be issued to each stockholder;
the number and terms of our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities which may be purchased per each subscription right;
the extent to which the subscription rights are transferable;
any other terms of the subscription rights, including the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the subscription rights;
the date on which the right to exercise the subscription rights shall commence, and the date on which the subscription rights shall expire;
the extent to which the subscription rights may include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities or an over-allotment privilege to the extent the securities are fully subscribed; and
if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting or purchase arrangement which may be entered into by us in connection with the offering of subscription rights.
The descriptions of the subscription rights in this prospectus and in any prospectus supplement are summaries of the material provisions of the applicable subscription right agreements. These descriptions do not restate those subscription right agreements in their entirety and may not contain all the information that you may find useful. We urge you to read the applicable subscription right agreements because they, and not the summaries, define your rights as holders of the subscription rights. For more information, please review the forms of the relevant subscription right agreements, which will be filed with the SEC promptly after the offering of subscription rights and will be available as described in the section of this prospectus captioned “Where You Can Find More Information.”

20




DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS
The following description summarizes the general features of the purchase contracts that we may offer under this prospectus. Although the features we have summarized below will generally apply to any future purchase contracts we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any purchase contracts that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The specific terms of any purchase contracts may differ from the description provided below as a result of negotiations with third parties in connection with the issuance of those purchase contracts, as well as for other reasons. Because the terms of any purchase contracts we offer under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms we describe below, you should rely solely on information in the applicable prospectus supplement if that summary is different from the summary in this prospectus.
We will incorporate by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part the form of any purchase contract that we may offer under this prospectus before the sale of the related purchase contract. We urge you to read any applicable prospectus supplement related to specific purchase contracts being offered, as well as the complete instruments that contain the terms of the securities that are subject to those purchase contracts. Certain of those instruments, or forms of those instruments, have been filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplements to those instruments or forms may be incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part from reports we file with the SEC.
We may issue purchase contracts, including contracts obligating holders to purchase from us, and for us to sell to holders, a specific or variable number of our securities at a future date or dates. Alternatively, the purchase contracts may obligate us to purchase from holders, and obligate holders to sell to us, a specific or varying number of our securities.
If we offer any purchase contracts, certain terms of that series of purchase contracts will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following:
the price of the securities or other property subject to the purchase contracts (which may be determined by reference to a specific formula described in the purchase contracts);
whether the purchase contracts are issued separately, or as a part of units each consisting of a purchase contract and one or more of our other securities, including U.S. Treasury securities, securing the holder’s obligations under the purchase contract;
any requirement for us to make periodic payments to holders or vice versa, and whether the payments are unsecured or pre-funded;
any provisions relating to any security provided for the purchase contracts;
whether the purchase contracts obligate the holder or us to purchase or sell, or both purchase and sell, the securities subject to purchase under the purchase contract, and the nature and amount of each of those securities, or the method of determining those amounts;
whether the purchase contracts are to be prepaid or not;
whether the purchase contracts are to be settled by delivery, or by reference or linkage to the value, performance or level of the securities subject to purchase under the purchase contract;
any acceleration, cancellation, termination or other provisions relating to the settlement of the purchase contracts;
a discussion of certain U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the purchase contracts;
whether the purchase contracts will be issued in fully registered or global form; and
any other terms of the purchase contracts and any securities subject to such purchase contracts.

21




DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
We may issue units comprising two or more securities described in this prospectus in any combination. For example, we might issue units consisting of a combination of debt securities and warrants to purchase common stock. The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the units that we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. The particular terms of the units and the extent, if any, to which the general terms and provisions may apply to the units so offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit also is the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. Units will be issued pursuant to the terms of a unit agreement, which may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately at any time or at any time before a specified date. A copy of the forms of the unit agreement and the unit certificate relating to any particular issue of units will be filed with the SEC each time we issue units, and you should read those documents for provisions that may be important to you. For more information on how you can obtain copies of the forms of the unit agreement and the related unit certificate, see the section of this prospectus captioned “Where You Can Find More Information.”
The prospectus supplement relating to any particular issuance of units will describe the terms of those units, including, to the extent applicable, the following:
the designation and terms of the units and the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;
any provision for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and
whether the units will be issued in fully registered or global form.

22




PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell securities:
through underwriters;
through dealers;
through agents;
directly to purchasers; or
through a combination of any of these methods of sale.
In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing securityholders.
We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. We will, in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act and describe any commissions that we must pay. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:
at a fixed price or prices that may be changed from time to time;
at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;
at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or
at negotiated prices.
Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.
The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:
the name of the agent or any underwriters;
the public offering or purchase price;
any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;
all other items constituting underwriting compensation;
any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to dealers; and
any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.
If any underwriters or agents are utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.
If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which the prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

23




If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing securityholders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.
Agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements that they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.
If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:
the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and
if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery.
The underwriters and other persons acting as agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.
Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, and/or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.
In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may over-allot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover over-allotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.
Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the third business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than three scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.
The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

24




LEGAL MATTERS
The validity of the securities offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, Professional Corporation, Seattle, Washington. Additional legal matters may be passed on for us, or any underwriters, dealers or agents by counsel we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.
EXPERTS
Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, as set forth in their report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP's report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at https://www.alpineimmunesciences.com/. Information accessible on or through our website is not a part of this prospectus.
This prospectus and any prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information on us and our consolidated subsidiaries and the securities that we are offering. Forms of any indenture or other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part or under cover of a Current Report on Form 8-K and incorporated in this prospectus by reference. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should read the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters.

25




INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information that we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K and, except as may be noted in any such Form 8-K, exhibits filed on such form that are related to such information), until the offering of the securities under the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part is terminated or completed:
our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019;
our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020;
the portions of our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A (other than information furnished rather than filed) that are incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K, filed with the SEC on May 5, 2020;
our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January 27, 2020, June 17, 2020 (as amended June 18, 2020) and June 18, 2020 (other than information furnished rather than filed); and
The description of our common stock contained in the Registration Statement on Form 8-A relating thereto, filed on June 16, 2015, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description.
You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address:
Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc.
188 East Blaine Street, Suite 200
Seattle, WA 98102
Attn: Investor Relations
(206) 788-4545

26




PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
Item 14.
Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution
The following table sets forth estimated expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered:
 
Amount
to be Paid
SEC registration fee
   $ 7,788
FINRA filing fee
        $ 9,500
Stock exchange listing fee
      *
Printing and engraving expenses
      *
Accounting fees and expenses
      *
Legal fees and expenses
      *
Transfer agent and registrar fees and expenses
      *
Trustee’s fees and expenses
      *
Miscellaneous expenses
      *
Total
   $ 17,288
    
*
These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

II-1





Item 15.
Indemnification of Directors and Officers
Section 145 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware empowers a corporation to indemnify its directors and officers and to purchase insurance with respect to liability arising out of their capacity or status as directors and officers, provided that the person acted in good faith and in a manner the person reasonably believed to be in our best interests, and, with respect to any criminal action, had no reasonable cause to believe the person’s actions were unlawful. The General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware further provides that the indemnification permitted thereunder shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which the directors and officers may be entitled under the corporation’s bylaws, any agreement, a vote of stockholders or otherwise. Our certificate of incorporation provides for the indemnification of our directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted under the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware. In addition, our bylaws require us to fully indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by reason of the fact that such person is or was our director or officer, or is or was serving at our request as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorney’s fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law.
In addition, the our bylaws require us to fully indemnify any person, or a Covered Person, who was or is made or is threatened to be made a party or is otherwise involved in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, or a “proceeding, by reason of the fact that he or she, or a person for whom he or she is the legal representative, is or was a director or officer of the corporation or, while a director or officer of the corporation, is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, trust, enterprise or nonprofit entity, including service with respect to employee benefit plans, against all liability and loss suffer and expenses (including attorney’s fees) reasonably incurred by such Covered Person
Section 102(b)(7) of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware permits a corporation to provide in its certificate of incorporation that a director of the corporation shall not be personally liable to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except (1) for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders, (2) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (3) for payments of unlawful dividends or unlawful stock repurchases or redemptions or (4) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit. Our certificate of incorporation provides that our directors shall not be personally liable to the registrant or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director and that if the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware is amended to authorize corporate action further eliminating or limiting the personal liability of directors, then the liability of our directors shall be eliminated or limited to the fullest extent permitted by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, as so amended.
Section 174 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware provides, among other things, that a director who willfully or negligently approves of an unlawful payment of dividends or an unlawful stock purchase or redemption may be held liable for such actions. A director who was either absent when the unlawful actions were approved, or dissented at the time, may avoid liability by causing his or her dissent to such actions to be entered in the books containing minutes of the meetings of the board of directors at the time such action occurred or immediately after such absent director receives notice of the unlawful acts
As permitted by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, we have entered into separate indemnification agreements with each of our directors and certain of our officers which require us, among other things, to indemnify them against certain liabilities which may arise by reason of their status as directors, officers or certain other employees.
We have and expect to maintain insurance policies under which its directors and officers are insured, within the limits and subject to the limitations of those policies, against certain expenses in connection with the defense of, and certain liabilities which might be imposed as a result of, actions, suits or proceedings to which they are parties by reason of being or having been directors or officers. The coverage provided by these policies may apply whether or not we would have the power to indemnify such person against such liability under the provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.
These indemnification provisions and the indemnification agreements entered into between the registrant and the registrant’s officers and directors may be sufficiently broad to permit indemnification of the registrant’s officers and directors for liabilities (including reimbursement of expenses incurred) arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act.
The underwriting agreement between the registrant and the underwriters to be filed as Exhibit 1.1 to this registration statement provides for the indemnification by the underwriters of our directors and officers and certain controlling persons

II-2




against specified liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act with respect to information provided by the underwriters specifically for inclusion in the registration statement.

II-3





Item 16.
Exhibits
 
 
Incorporation by Reference
Exhibit Number
Exhibit Description
Form
Date
Exhibit Number
1.1*
Form of Underwriting Agreement
 
 
 
3.1
10-K
March 28, 2018
3.1
3.2
S-1
May 13, 2015
3.4
4.1
10-K
March 28, 2018
4.1
4.2*
Form of Preferred Stock Certificate
 
 
 
4.3
 
 
 
4.4*
Form of Debt Security
 
 
 
4.5*
Form of Depositary Agreement
 
 
 
4.6*
Form of Warrant Agreement
 
 
 
4.7*
Form of Subscription Agreement
 
 
 
4.8*
Form of Purchase Contract Agreement
 
 
 
4.9*
Form of Unit Agreement
 
 
 
4.10*
Form of Unit
 
 
 
5.1
 
 
 
23.1
 
 
 
23.2
 
 
 
24.1
Power of Attorney (included on the signature page to this Registration Statement)
 
 
 
25.1**
Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939
 
 
 
    
*
To be filed by amendment or incorporated by reference pursuant to a Current Report on Form 8-K.
**
If applicable, to be filed by amendment or by a report filed under the Exchange Act and incorporated herein by reference.

Item 17.
Undertakings
(a)    The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:
(1)    to file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i)    to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act;
(ii)    to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

II-4




(iii)    to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
provided, however, that paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the Registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.
(2)    that, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3)    to remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(4)    that, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:
(i)    each prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(ii)    each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.
(5)    that, for the purpose of determining liability of a Registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned Registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of such undersigned Registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned Registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
(i)    any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned Registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
(ii)    any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned Registrant;
(iii)    the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned Registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant; and
(iv)    any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned Registrant to the purchaser.
(6)    that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the Registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

II-5




(7)    to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.
(b)    Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the Registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

II-6




SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S‑3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Seattle, State of Washington, on July 8, 2020.
ALPINE IMMUNE SCIENCES, INC.
By:    /s/ Mitchell H. Gold, M.D.    
Mitchell H. Gold, M.D.
Executive Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
POWER OF ATTORNEY
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Mitchell H. Gold, M.D. and Paul Rickey, and each of them, as his or her true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this registration statement, including post-effective amendments, and registration statements filed pursuant to Rule 462 under the Securities Act, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and all other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorney-in-fact and agent and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith and about the premises, as fully for all intents and purposes as they, he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorney-in-fact and agent or any of them, or their, his or her substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated:
Signature
Title
Date
   /s/ Mitchell H. Gold, M.D.
Mitchell H. Gold, M.D.
Chief Executive Officer and Executive Chairman of the Board of Directors
(Principal Executive Officer)
July 8, 2020
 
 
 
   /s/ Paul Rickey
Paul Rickey
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
July 8, 2020
 
 
 
/s/ Peter Thompson, M.D.    
Peter Thompson, M.D.
Director
July 8, 2020
 
 
 
 /s/ James N. Topper, M.D., Ph.D.    
James N. Topper, M.D., Ph.D.
Director
July 8, 2020
 
 
 
/s/ Jay Venkatesan, M.D.    
Jay Venkatesan, M.D.
Director
July 8, 2020
 
 
 
/s/ Robert Conway    
Robert Conway
Director
July 8, 2020
 
 
 
/s/ Paul Sekhri    
Paul Sekhri
Director
July 8, 2020
 
 
 
/s/ Christopher Peetz    
Christopher Peetz
Director
July 8, 2020
 
 
 
/s/ Xiangmin Cui, Ph.D.    
Xiangmin Cui, Ph.D.
Director
July 8, 2020


II-7

Exhibit


Exhibit 4.3

ALPINE IMMUNE SCIENCES, INC.
[___________],
AS TRUSTEE TO
INDENTURE
DATED AS OF [●]
DEBT SECURITIES





TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 1 DEFINITIONS AND OTHER PROVISIONS OF GENERAL APPLICATION
1
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 1.1
Definitions.
1
 
 
Section 1.2
Compliance Certificates and Opinions.
6
 
 
Section 1.3
Form of Documents Delivered to Trustee.
7
 
 
Section 1.4
Acts of Holders; Record Dates.
7
 
 
Section 1.5
Notices, etc., to Trustee and Company.
8
 
 
Section 1.6
Notice to Holders; Waiver.
9
 
 
Section 1.7
Conflict with Trust Indenture Act.
9
 
 
Section 1.8
Effect of Headings and Table of Contents.
9
 
 
Section 1.9
Successors and Assigns.
9
 
 
Section 1.10
Separability Clause.
9
 
 
Section 1.11
Benefits of Indenture.
9
 
 
Section 1.12
Governing Law.
9
 
 
Section 1.13
Legal Holidays.
10
 
 
Section 1.14
Indenture and Securities Solely Corporate Obligations.
10
 
 
Section 1.15
Indenture May be Executed in Counterparts.
10
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 2 SECURITY FORMS
10
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 2.1
Forms Generally
10
 
 
Section 2.2
Form of Legend for Global Securities.
11
 
 
Section 2.3
Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication.
11
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 3 THE SECURITIES
11
 





 
 
 
 
 
Section 3.1
Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series.
11
 
 
Section 3.2
Denominations.
13
 
 
Section 3.3
Execution, Authentication, Delivery and Dating.
14
 
 
Section 3.4
Temporary Securities.
15
 
 
Section 3.5
Registration; Registration of Transfer and Exchange.
15
 
 
Section 3.6
Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.
16
 
 
Section 3.7
Payment of Interest; Interest Rights Preserved.
17
 
 
Section 3.8
Persons Deemed Owners.
18
 
 
Section 3.9
Cancellation.
18
 
 
Section 3.10
Computation of Interest.
18
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 4 SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE
18
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 4.1
Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.
18
 
 
Section 4.2
Application of Trust Money.
19
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 5 REMEDIES
19
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 5.1
Events of Default.
19
 
 
Section 5.2
Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.
20
 
 
Section 5.3
Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.
21
 
 
Section 5.4
Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.
22
 
 
Section 5.5
Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.
22
 
 
Section 5.6
Application of Money Collected.
22
 
 
Section 5.7
Limitation on Suits.
23
 
 
Section 5.8
Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal, Premium and Interest.
23
 
 
Section 5.9
Restoration of Rights and Remedies.
23
 
 
Section 5.10
Rights and Remedies Cumulative.
23
 
 
Section 5.11
Delay or Omission Not Waiver.
24
 
 
Section 5.12
Control by Holders.
24
 
 
Section 5.13
Waiver of Past Defaults.
24
 
 
Section 5.14
Undertaking for Costs.
24
 
 
Section 5.15
Waiver of Usury, Stay or Extension Laws.
24
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 6 THE TRUSTEE
25
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 6.1
Certain Duties and Responsibilities.
25
 
 
Section 6.2
Notice of Defaults.
25
 
 
Section 6.3
Certain Rights of Trustee.
25
 
 
Section 6.4
Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities.
26
 
 
Section 6.5
May Hold Securities and Act as Trustee under Other Indentures.
26
 
 
Section 6.6
Money Held in Trust.
26
 
 
Section 6.7
Compensation and Reimbursement.
27
 
 
Section 6.8
Conflicting Interests.
27
 
 
Section 6.9
Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.
27
 





 
Section 6.10
Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.
27
 
 
Section 6.11
Acceptance of Appointment by Successor.
28
 
 
Section 6.12
Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.
29
 
 
Section 6.13
Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company.
29
 
 
Section 6.14
Appointment of Authenticating Agent.
30
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 7 HOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY TRUSTEE AND COMPANY
31
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 7.1
Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Holders.
31
 
 
Section 7.2
Preservation of Information; Communications to Holders.
31
 
 
Section 7.3
Reports by Trustee.
32
 
 
Section 7.4
Reports by Company.
32
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 8 CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, CONVEYANCE, TRANSFER OR LEASE
32
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 8.1
Company May Consolidate, etc., Only on Certain Terms.
32
 
 
Section 8.2
Successor Substituted.
33
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 9 SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES
33
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 9.1
Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Holders.
33
 
 
Section 9.2
Supplemental Indentures with Consent of Holders.
34
 
 
Section 9.3
Execution of Supplemental Indentures.
35
 
 
Section 9.4
Effect of Supplemental Indentures.
35
 
 
Section 9.5
Conformity with Trust Indenture Act.
35
 
 
Section 9.6
Reference in Securities to Supplemental Indentures.
35
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 10 COVENANTS
35
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 10.1
Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.
35
 
 
Section 10.2
Maintenance of Office or Agency.
35
 
 
Section 10.3
Money for Securities Payments To Be Held in Trust.
36
 
 
Section 10.4
Statement by Officers as to Default.
36
 
 
Section 10.5
Existence.
37
 
 
Section 10.6
Waiver of Certain Covenants.
37
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 11 REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES
37
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 11.1
Applicability of Article.
37
 
 
Section 11.2
Election to Redeem; Notice to Trustee.
37
 
 
Section 11.3
Selection by Trustee of Securities to Be Redeemed.
37
 
 
Section 11.4
Notice of Redemption.
38
 
 
Section 11.5
Deposit of Redemption Price.
39
 
 
Section 11.6
Securities Payable on Redemption Date.
39
 
 
Section 11.7
Securities Redeemed in Part.
39
 
 
 
 
 





ARTICLE 12 SINKING FUNDS
39
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 12.1
Applicability of Article.
39
 
 
Section 12.2
Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.
39
 
 
Section 12.3
Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.
40
 
 
 
 
 
ARTICLE 13 DEFEASANCE AND COVENANT DEFEASANCE
40
 
 
 
 
 
 
Section 13.1
Company’s Option to Effect Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.
40
 
 
Section 13.2
Defeasance and Discharge.
40
 
 
Section 13.3
Covenant Defeasance.
41
 
 
Section 13.4
Conditions to Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.
41
 
 
Section 13.5
Deposited Money, U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations to be Held in Trust; Miscellaneous Provisions.
42
 
 
Section 13.6
Reinstatement.
43
 







Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc.

Certain Sections of this Indenture relating to Sections 310 through 318, inclusive, of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939:
 
 
 
Section 310(a)(1)
6.9
(a)(2)
6.9
(a)(3)
Not Applicable
(a)(4)
Not Applicable
(b)
6.8, 6.10
Section 311(a)
6.13
(b)
6.13
Section 312(a)
7.1, 7.2
(b)
7.2
(c)
7.2
Section 313(a)
7.3
(b)
7.3
(c)
7.3
(d)
7.3
Section 314(a)
7.4
(a)(4)
10.1, 10.4
(b)
Not Applicable
(c)(1)
1.2
(c)(2)
1.2
(c)(3)
Not Applicable
(d)
Not Applicable
(e)
1.2
Section 315(a)
6.1
(b)
6.2
(c)
6.1
(d)
6.1
(e)
5.14
Section 316(a)
1.1
(a)(1)(A)
5.2, 5.12
(a)(1)(B)
5.13
(a)(2)
Not Applicable
(b)
5.8
(c)
1.4
Section 317(a)(1)
5.3
(a)(2)
5.4
(b)
10.3
Section 318(a)
1.7
NOTE: This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be a part of the Indenture.






INDENTURE, dated as of [●], between Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware (herein called the “Company”), having its principal executive office at 188 East Blaine Street, Suite 200, Seattle, Washington 98102, and [_________], as Trustee (herein called the “Trustee”).

RECITALS OF THE COMPANY

The Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance from time to time of its unsecured debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness (herein called the “Securities”), to be issued in one or more series as provided in this Indenture.

All things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

The Indenture is subject to, and will be governed by, the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act that are required to be a part of and govern indentures qualified under the Trust Indenture Act.

NOW, THEREFORE, THIS INDENTURE WITNESSETH:

For and in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the Holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed, for the equal and proportionate benefit of all Holders of the Securities or of series thereof appertaining, as follows:

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS AND OTHER PROVISIONS OF GENERAL APPLICATION

Section 1.1 Definitions.

For all purposes of this Indenture, except as otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires:
(1) the terms defined in this Article have the meanings assigned to them in this Article and include the plural as well as the singular;

(2) all other terms used herein which are defined in the Trust Indenture Act, either directly or by reference therein, have the meanings assigned to them therein;

(3) all accounting terms not otherwise defined herein have the meanings assigned to them in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America, and, except as otherwise herein expressly provided, the term “generally accepted accounting principles” with respect to any computation required or permitted hereunder shall mean such accounting principles in the United States of America as are generally accepted at the date of such computation;

(4) all references to “$” refer to the lawful currency of the United States of America;






(5) unless the context otherwise requires, any reference to an “Article” or a “Section” refers to an Article or a Section, as the case may be, of this Indenture; and

(6) the words “herein,” “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.
“Act,” when used with respect to any Holder, has the meaning specified in Section 1.4.

“Additional Interest” has the meaning specified in Section 5.2(b).

“Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified Person.

“Authenticating Agent” means any Person authorized by the Trustee pursuant to Section 6.14 to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of one or more series.

“Board of Directors” means either the board of directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee of that board empowered to act for it with respect to this Indenture.

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification, and delivered to the Trustee.

“Business Day,” when used with respect to any Place of Payment, means each Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday which is not a day on which banking institutions in that Place of Payment are authorized or obligated by law or executive order to close.

“Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

“Company” means the corporation named as the “Company” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Person shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Company” shall mean such successor Person.

“Company Request” or “Company Order” means a written request or order signed by any two of the following in the name of the Company: the Chairman of the Board, the Vice Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the President or any executive officer, the principal financial officer, the principal accounting officer, the Treasurer, an Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company, and delivered to the Trustee.

“control” when used with respect to any specified Person means the power to direct the management and policies of such Person, directly or indirectly, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise; and the terms “controlling” and “controlled” have meanings correlative to the foregoing.






“Corporate Trust Office” means the corporate trust office of the Trustee at [_________], or such other office, designated by the Trustee by written notice to the Company, at which at any particular time its corporate trust business shall be administered.

“corporation” means a corporation, association, company, joint-stock company or business trust.

“Covenant Defeasance” has the meaning specified in Section 13.3.

“Defaulted Interest” has the meaning specified in Section 3.7.

“Defeasance” has the meaning specified in Section 13.2.

“Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series issuable in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act that is designated to act as Depositary for such Securities as contemplated by Section 3.1.

“euro” or “euros” means the currency adopted by those nations participating in the third stage of the economic and monetary union provisions of the Treaty on European Union, signed at Maastricht on February 7, 1992.

“European Economic Area” means the member nations of the European Economic Area pursuant to the Oporto Agreement on the European Economic Area dated May 2, 1992, as amended.

“European Union” means the member nations of the European Union established by the Treaty of European Union, signed at Maastricht on February 7, 1992, which amended the Treaty of Rome establishing the European Community.

“Event of Default” has the meaning specified in Section 5.1.

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and any statute successor thereto, in each case as amended from time to time.

“Expiration Date” has the meaning specified in Section 1.4.

“Foreign Government Obligation” means with respect to Securities of any series which are not denominated in the currency of the United States of America (x) any security which is (i) a direct obligation of the government which issued or caused to be issued the currency in which such security is denominated and for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or, with respect to Securities of any series which are denominated in euros, a direct obligation of any member nation of the European Union for the payment of which obligation the full faith and credit of the respective nation is pledged so long as such nation has a credit rating at least equal to that of the highest rated member nation of the European Economic Area, or (ii) an obligation of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of a government specified in clause (i) above the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the such government, which, in either case (i) or (ii), is not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and (y) any depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act) as custodian with respect to any Foreign Government Obligation which is specified in clause (x) above and held by such bank for the account





of the holder of such depositary receipt, or with respect to any specific payment of principal of or interest on any Foreign Government Obligation which is so specified and held, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Foreign Government Obligation or the specific payment of principal or interest evidenced by such depositary receipt.

“Global Security” means, with respect to any series of Securities, a Security executed by the Company and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or held by the Trustee as custodian for the Depositary pursuant to a safekeeping agreement with the Depositary, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in global form without interest coupons in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

“Holder” means a Person in whose name a Security is registered in the Security Register.

“Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed and as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions hereof, including, for all purposes of this instrument and any such supplemental indenture, the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act that are deemed to be a part of and govern this instrument and any such supplemental indenture, respectively. The term “Indenture” shall also include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 3.1; provided, however, that if at any time more than one Person is acting as Trustee under this Indenture due to the appointment of one or more separate Trustees for any one or more separate series of Securities, “Indenture” shall mean, with respect to such series of Securities for which any such Person is Trustee, this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities for which such Person is Trustee established as contemplated by Section 3.1, exclusive, however, of any provisions or terms which relate solely to other series of Securities for which such Person is not Trustee, regardless of when such terms or provisions were adopted, and exclusive of any provisions or terms adopted by means of one or more indentures supplemental hereto executed and delivered after such Person had become such Trustee, but to which such person, as such Trustee, was not a party; provided, further that in the event that this Indenture is supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto which are only applicable to certain series of Securities, the term “Indenture” for a particular series of Securities shall only include the supplemental indentures applicable thereto.

“interest,” when used with respect to an Original Issue Discount Security, which by its terms bears interest only at Maturity, means interest payable at Maturity.

“Interest Payment Date,” when used with respect to any Security, means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.

“Investment Company Act” means the Investment Company Act of 1940 and any statute successor thereto, in each case as amended from time to time.

“Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security or an installment of principal becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, repurchase at the option of the Holder, upon redemption or otherwise.






“Notice of Default” means a written notice of the kind specified in Section 5.1(4).

“Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by any two of the following in the name of the Company: the Chairman of the Board, a Vice Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, any executive officer, the principal financial officer, the principal accounting officer, the Treasurer, an Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, of the Company, and delivered to the Trustee. One of the officers signing an Officers’ Certificate given pursuant to Section 10.4 shall be the principal executive or principal financial officer of the Company.

“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of counsel, who may be counsel for, or an employee of, the Company, and who shall be reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

“Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.2.

“Outstanding,” when used with respect to Securities, means, as of the date of determination, all Securities theretofore authenticated and delivered under this Indenture, except:

(1) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation;

(2) Securities for whose payment or redemption money in the necessary amount has been theretofore deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent (other than the Company) in trust or set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own Paying Agent) for the Holders of such Securities; provided that, if such Securities are to be redeemed, notice of such redemption has been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor satisfactory to the Trustee has been made;

(3) Securities as to which Defeasance has been effected pursuant to Section 13.2; and

(4) Securities which have been paid pursuant to Section 3.6 or in exchange for or in lieu of which other Securities have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to this Indenture, other than any such Securities in respect of which there shall have been presented to the Trustee proof satisfactory to it that such Securities are held by a bona fide purchaser in whose hands such Securities are valid obligations of the Company;

provided, however, that in determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of the Outstanding Securities have given, made or taken any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action hereunder as of any date, (A) the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the amount of the principal thereof which would be due and payable as of such date upon acceleration of the Maturity thereof to such date pursuant to Section 5.2, (B) if, as of such date, the principal amount payable at the Stated Maturity of a Security is not determinable, the principal amount of such Security which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the amount as specified or determined as contemplated by Section 3.1, (C) the principal amount of a Security denominated in one or more non-U.S. dollar currencies or currency units which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the U.S. dollar equivalent, determined as of such date in the manner provided as contemplated by Section 3.1, of the principal amount of such Security (or, in the case of a Security described in clause (A) or (B) above, of the amount determined as provided in such clause), and (D)





Securities owned by the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or of such other obligor shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding, except that, in determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying upon any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, only Securities which the Trustee knows to be so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or of such other obligor.

“Paying Agent” means any Person authorized by the Company to pay the principal of or any premium or interest on any Securities on behalf of the Company.

“Person” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

“Place of Payment,” when used with respect to the Securities of any series, means the place or places where the principal of and any premium and interest on the Securities of that series are payable as specified as contemplated by Section 3.1.

“Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 3.6 in exchange for or in lieu of a mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security.

“Prospectus” means the prospectus (including any prospectus supplement) used with respect to the offer and sale of the Securities of any series.

“Record Date” means any Regular Record Date or Special Record Date.

“Redemption Date,” when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the date fixed for such redemption by or pursuant to this Indenture.

“Redemption Price,” when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the price at which it is to be redeemed pursuant to this Indenture.

“Regular Record Date” for the interest payable on any Interest Payment Date on the Securities of any series means the date specified for that purpose as contemplated by Section 3.1.

“Reporting Default” has the meaning specified in Section 5.2(b).

“Responsible Officer” means, when used with respect to the Trustee, an officer of the Trustee in the Corporate Trust Office assigned and duly authorized by the Trustee to administer its corporate trust matters.

“Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.






“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933 and any statute successor thereto, in each case as amended from time to time.

“Security Register” and “Security Registrar” have the respective meanings specified in Section 3.5.

“Special Record Date” for the payment of any Defaulted Interest means a date fixed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 3.7.

“Stated Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is due and payable.

“Subsidiary” means a Person of which at least a majority of the outstanding voting stock having the power to elect a majority of the board of directors of such Person (in the case of a corporation) is, or of which at least a majority of the equity interests (in the case of a Person which is not a corporation) are, at the time owned, directly or indirectly, by the Company or by one or more other Subsidiaries, or by the Company and one or more other Subsidiaries. For the purposes of this definition, “voting stock” means stock or similar interests to the Company which ordinarily has or have voting power for the election of directors, or persons performing similar functions, whether at all times or only so long as no senior class of stock or other interests has or have such voting power by reason of any contingency.

“Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as in force at the date as of which this instrument was executed; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “Trust Indenture Act” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as so amended.

“Trustee” means the Person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that series.

“U.S. Government Obligation” means (x) any security which is (i) a direct obligation of the United States of America for the payment of which the full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged or (ii) an obligation of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America, which, in either case (i) or (ii), is not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and (y) any depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act) as custodian with respect to any U.S. Government Obligation which is specified in clause (x) above and held by such bank for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt, or with respect to any specific payment of principal of or interest on any U.S. Government Obligation which is so specified and held, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation or the specific payment of principal or interest evidenced by such depositary receipt.






Section 1.2 Compliance Certificates and Opinions.

Upon any application or request by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under any provision of this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee such certificates and opinions as may be required under the Trust Indenture Act. Each such certificate or opinion shall be given in the form of an Officers’ Certificate, if to be given by an officer of the Company, or an Opinion of Counsel, if to be given by counsel, and shall comply with the requirements of the Trust Indenture Act and any other requirements set forth in this Indenture.

Every certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture shall include,

(1) a statement that each individual signing such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition and the definitions herein relating thereto;

(2) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

(3) a statement that, in the opinion of each such individual, he or she has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him or her to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

(4) a statement as to whether, in the opinion of each such individual, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

Section 1.3 Form of Documents Delivered to Trustee.

In any case where several matters are required to be certified by, or covered by an opinion of, any specified Person, it is not necessary that all such matters be certified by, or covered by the opinion of, only one such Person, or that they be so certified or covered by only one document, but one such Person may certify or give an opinion with respect to some matters and one or more other such Persons as to other matters, and any such Person may certify or give an opinion as to such matters in one or several documents.

Any certificate or opinion of an officer of the Company may be based, insofar as it relates to legal matters, upon a certificate or opinion of, or representations by, counsel, unless such officer knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know, that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his or her certificate or opinion is based are erroneous. Any such certificate or opinion of counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to factual matters, upon a certificate or opinion of, or representations by, an officer or officers of the Company stating that the information with respect to such factual matters is in the possession of the Company, unless such counsel knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know, that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to such matters are erroneous.

Any such certificate or opinion of an officer of the Company or of counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to accounting matters, upon a certificate or opinion of, or representations by, an accountant or firm of accountants in the employ of the Company, unless such officer or counsel, as the case may be, knows, that the certificate or opinion





or representations with respect to the accounting matters upon which his or her certificate or opinion are based are erroneous.

Where any Person is required to make, give or execute two or more applications, requests, consents, certificates, statements, opinions or other instruments under this Indenture, they may, but need not, be consolidated and form one instrument.

Section 1.4 Acts of Holders; Record Dates.

Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided or permitted by this Indenture to be given, made or taken by Holders may be embodied in and evidenced by one or more instruments of substantially similar tenor signed by such Holders in person or by an agent duly appointed in writing; and, except as herein otherwise expressly provided, such action shall become effective when such instrument or instruments are delivered to the Trustee and, where it is hereby expressly required, to the Company. The Trustee shall promptly deliver to the Company copies of any such instrument or instruments delivered to the Trustee. Such instrument or instruments (and the action embodied therein and evidenced thereby) are herein sometimes referred to as the “Act” of the Holders signing such instrument or instruments. Proof of execution of any such instrument or of a writing appointing any such agent shall be sufficient for any purpose of this Indenture and (subject to Section 6.1) conclusive in favor of the Trustee and the Company, if made in the manner provided in this Section.

The fact and date of the execution by any Person of any such instrument or writing may be proved by the affidavit of a witness of such execution or by a certificate of a notary public or other officer authorized by law to take acknowledgments of deeds, certifying that the individual signing such instrument or writing acknowledged to him or her the execution thereof. Where such execution is by a signer acting in a capacity other than his or her individual capacity, such certificate or affidavit shall also constitute sufficient proof of his or her authority. The fact and date of the execution of any such instrument or writing, or the authority of the Person executing the same, may also be proved in any other manner that the Trustee deems sufficient.

The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register.

Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act of the Holder of any Security shall bind every future Holder of the same Security and the Holder of every Security issued upon the registration of transfer thereof or in exchange therefor or in lieu thereof in respect of anything done, omitted or suffered to be done by the Trustee or the Company in reliance thereon, whether or not notation of such action is made upon such Security.

The Company may set any day as a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders of Outstanding Securities of any series entitled to give, make or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, vote, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided or permitted by this Indenture to be given, made or taken by Holders of Securities of such series. If any record date is set pursuant to this paragraph, the Holders of Outstanding Securities of the relevant series on such record date, and no other Holders, shall be entitled to take the relevant action, whether or not such Holders remain Holders after such record date; provided that no such action shall be effective hereunder unless taken on or prior to the applicable Expiration Date by Holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities of such series on such record date. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prevent the Company from setting a new record date for any action for which a record date has previously been set pursuant to





this paragraph (whereupon the record date previously set shall automatically and with no action by any Person be canceled and of no effect), and nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to render ineffective any action taken by Holders of the requisite principal amount of Outstanding Securities of the relevant series on the date such action is taken. Promptly after any record date is set pursuant to this paragraph, the Company, at its own expense, shall cause notice of such record date, the proposed action by Holders and the applicable Expiration Date to be given to the Trustee in writing and to each Holder of Securities of the relevant series in the manner set forth in Section 1.6.

With respect to any record date set pursuant to this Section, the Company may designate any day as the “Expiration Date” and from time to time may change the Expiration Date to any earlier or later day; provided that no such change shall be effective unless notice of the proposed new Expiration Date is given to the Trustee in writing, and to each Holder of Securities of the relevant series in the manner set forth in Section 1.6, on or prior to the existing Expiration Date. If an Expiration Date is not designated with respect to any record date set pursuant to this Section, the Company shall be deemed to have initially designated the 180th day after such record date as the Expiration Date with respect thereto, subject to its right to change the Expiration Date as provided in this paragraph. Notwithstanding the foregoing, no Expiration Date shall be later than the 180th day after the applicable record date.
Without limiting the foregoing, a Holder entitled hereunder to take any action hereunder with regard to any particular Security may do so with regard to all or any part of the principal amount of such Security or by one or more duly appointed agents each of which may do so pursuant to such appointment with regard to all or any part of such principal amount.
Section 1.5 Notices, etc., to Trustee and Company.
Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or Act of Holders or other document provided or permitted by this Indenture to be made upon, given or furnished to, or filed with,
(1) the Trustee by any Holder or by the Company shall be sufficient for every purpose hereunder if made, given, furnished or filed in writing (or by facsimile transmissions, provided that oral confirmation of receipt shall have been received) to or with the Trustee at its Corporate Trust Office, Attention: Corporate Trust Department, or
(2) the Company by the Trustee or by any Holder shall be sufficient for every purpose hereunder (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed by first-class postage prepaid, personally delivered or sent via overnight courier to the Company addressed to it at the address of its principal office specified in the first paragraph of this instrument or at any other address previously furnished in writing to the Trustee by the Company, Attention: Chief Financial Officer.

Section 1.6 Notice to Holders; Waiver.

Where this Indenture provides for notice to Holders of any event, such notice shall be sufficiently given (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed by first-class postage prepaid, or delivered by hand or overnight courier to each Holder affected by such event, at its address as it appears in the Security Register, not later than the latest date (if any), and not earlier than the earliest date (if any), prescribed for the giving of such notice. Neither the failure to mail or deliver by hand or overnight courier any notice, nor any defect in any notice so mailed or delivered by hand or overnight courier, to any particular Holder shall affect the sufficiency of such notice with respect to other Holders. Where this Indenture provides for notice in any manner, such notice may be waived in





writing by the Person entitled to receive such notice, either before or after the event, and such waiver shall be the equivalent of such notice. Waivers of notice by Holders shall be filed with the Trustee, but such filing shall not be a condition precedent to the validity of any action taken in reliance upon such waiver.

In case by reason of the suspension of regular mail service or by reason of any other cause it shall be impracticable to give such notice by mail, then such notification as shall be made with the approval of the Trustee shall constitute a sufficient notification for every purpose hereunder.

Section 1.7 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act.
If any provision hereof limits, qualifies or conflicts with a provision of the Trust Indenture Act that is required under the Trust Indenture Act to be a part of and govern this Indenture, the latter provision shall control. If any provision of this Indenture modifies or excludes any provision of the Trust Indenture Act, that may be so modified or excluded, the latter provision shall be deemed to apply to this Indenture as so modified or to be excluded, as the case may be.
Section 1.8 Effect of Headings and Table of Contents.

The Article and Section headings herein and the Table of Contents are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

Section 1.9 Successors and Assigns.

All covenants and agreements in this Indenture by the Company shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

Section 1.10 Separability Clause.

In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

Section 1.11 Benefits of Indenture.

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and their successors hereunder and the Holders, any benefit or any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Indenture.

Section 1.12 Governing Law.

THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK.






Section 1.13 Legal Holidays.

In any case where any Interest Payment Date, Redemption Date or Stated Maturity of any Security or the last date on which a Holder has the right to convert a Security at a particular conversion price or conversion rate, as the case may be, shall not be a Business Day at any Place of Payment, then (notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or of the Securities (other than a provision of any Security which specifically states that such provision shall apply in lieu of this Section)) payment of interest or principal (and premium, if any) or, if applicable to a particular series of Securities, conversion need not be made at such Place of Payment on such date, but may be made on the next succeeding Business Day at such Place of Payment with the same force and effect as if made on the Interest Payment Date or Redemption Date, at the Stated Maturity or on such last day for conversion, as the case may be.

Section 1.14 Indenture and Securities Solely Corporate Obligations.
No recourse for the payment of the principal of or premium, if any, or interest on any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, and no recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of the Company in this Indenture or in any supplemental indenture or in any Security, or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, employee, agent, officer, or director or subsidiary, as such, past, present or future, of the Company or of any successor corporation, either directly or through the Company or any successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that all such liability is hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issue of the Securities.

Section 1.15 Indenture May be Executed in Counterparts.

This instrument may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original, but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument.

ARTICLE 2
SECURITY FORMS

Section 2.1 Forms Generally

The Securities of each series shall be in substantially such form as shall be established by or pursuant to a Board Resolution and as set forth in such Board Resolution (including such terms as set forth in any form of Securities for each series approved by such Board Resolution) or, to the extent established pursuant to rather than set forth in a Board Resolution, in an Officers’ Certificate detailing such establishment (including any exhibit attached thereto), or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture, and may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification and such legends or endorsements placed thereon as may be required to comply with the rules of any securities exchange or Depositary therefor or as may, consistently herewith, be determined by the officers executing such Securities, as evidenced by their execution thereof. If the form of Securities of any series is established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the





delivery of the Company Order contemplated by Section 3.3 for the authentication and delivery of such Securities. Any such Board Resolution or record of such action shall have attached thereto a true and correct copy of the form of Security referred to therein approved by or pursuant to such Board Resolution.

The definitive Securities shall be printed, lithographed or engraved on steel engraved borders or may be produced in any other manner, all as determined by the officers executing such Securities, as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.

Section 2.2 Form of Legend for Global Securities.

Unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 3.1 for the Securities evidenced thereby, every Global Security authenticated and delivered hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

THIS SECURITY IS A GLOBAL SECURITY WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE INDENTURE HEREINAFTER REFERRED TO AND IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF A DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE THEREOF. THIS SECURITY MAY NOT BE EXCHANGED IN WHOLE OR IN PART FOR A SECURITY REGISTERED, AND NO TRANSFER OF THIS SECURITY IN WHOLE OR IN PART MAY BE REGISTERED, IN THE NAME OF ANY PERSON OTHER THAN SUCH DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE THEREOF, EXCEPT IN THE LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES DESCRIBED IN THE INDENTURE.

Section 2.3 Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication.

The Trustee’s certificates of authentication shall be in substantially the following form:
This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.
 
 
 
 
 
_______________,
as Trustee
 
 
 
 
By:
 
 
 
Authorized Officer

ARTICLE 3
THE SECURITIES
Section 3.1 Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series.
The aggregate principal amount of Securities which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.
The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto or pursuant to an Officers’ Certificate pursuant to authority granted under a Board





Resolution. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate of the Company, established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, or established in an Officers’ Certificate pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution with respect to the Securities of the series:
(1) whether the Securities of the series are senior or subordinated and if such Securities are subordinated, the subordination provisions applicable to such series of Securities;
(2) the offering price of the Securities of the series;
(3) the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from Securities of any other series);
(4) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the series pursuant to Section 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 9.6 or 11.7 and except for any Securities which, pursuant to Section 3.3, are deemed never to have been authenticated and delivered hereunder);
(5) the Person to whom any interest on a Security of the series shall be payable, if other than the Person in whose name that Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the Regular Record Date for such interest;
(6) the date or dates on which the principal of any Securities of the series is payable;
(7) the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) at which any Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which any such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which any such interest shall be payable and the Regular Record Date for any such interest payable on any Interest Payment Date (or the method for determining the dates and rates);
(8) the place or places where the principal of and any premium and interest on any Securities of the series shall be payable;
(9) the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which any Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company and, if other than by a Board Resolution, the manner in which any election by the Company to redeem the Securities shall be evidenced;
(10) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase any Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund or similar provisions or any redemption or purchase at the option of the Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which any Securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;
(11) if issued other than in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which any Securities of the series shall be issuable;





(12) if the amount of principal of or any premium or interest on any Securities of the series may be determined with reference to an index or pursuant to a formula, the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;
(13) if other than the currency of the United States of America, the currency, currencies or currency units in which the principal of or any premium or interest on any Securities of the series shall be payable and the manner of determining the equivalent thereof in the currency of the United States of America for any purpose, including for purposes of the definition of “Outstanding” in Section 1.1;
(14) if the principal of or any premium or interest on any Securities of the series is to be payable, at the election of the Company or the Holder thereof, in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are stated to be payable, the currency, currencies or currency units in which the principal of or any premium or interest on such Securities as to which such election is made shall be payable, the periods within which and the terms and conditions upon which such election is to be made and the amount so payable (or the manner in which such amount shall be determined);
(15) the percentage of the principal amount at which the Securities will be issued, and, if other than the entire principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of any Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.2;
(16) if the principal amount payable at the Stated Maturity of any Securities of the series will not be determinable as of any one or more dates prior to the Stated Maturity, the amount which shall be deemed to be the principal amount of such Securities as of any such date for any purpose thereunder or hereunder, including the principal amount thereof which shall be due and payable upon any Maturity other than the Stated Maturity or which shall be deemed to be Outstanding as of any date prior to the Stated Maturity (or, in any such case, the manner in which such amount deemed to be the principal amount shall be determined);
(17) if applicable, that the Securities of the series, in whole or any specified part, shall be defeasible pursuant to Section 13.2 or Section 13.3 or both such Sections, or any other defeasance provisions applicable to any Securities of the series, and, if other than by a Board Resolution, the manner in which any election by the Company to defease such Securities shall be evidenced;
(18) if applicable, the terms of any right to convert or exchange Securities of the series, including, without limitation, the conversion or exchange price, the conversion or exchange period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, at the option of the Holders thereof or at the option of the Company, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange if such series of Securities are redeemed, if applicable;
(19) if applicable, that any Securities of the series shall be issuable in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and, in such case, the respective Depositaries for such Global Securities, the form of any legend or legends which shall be borne by any such Global Security in addition to or in lieu of that set forth in Section 2.2 and any circumstances in addition to or in lieu of those set forth in clause (2) of the last paragraph of Section 3.5 in which any such Global Security may be exchanged in whole or in part for Securities registered, and any transfer of such Global Security in whole or in part may be registered, in the name or names of Persons other than the Depositary for such Global Security or a nominee thereof;





(20) any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 5.2 upon an Event of Default;
(21) any addition to or deletion of or change in the Events of Default or covenants or other provisions which apply to Securities of the series or do not apply to the Securities of the series;
(22) any Authenticating Agents, Paying Agents, Security Registrars or such other agents necessary in connection with the issuance of the Securities of such series, including, without limitation, exchange rate agents and calculation agents;
(23) if applicable, the terms of any security that will be provided for a series of Securities, including any provisions regarding the circumstances under which collateral may be released or substituted;
(24) if applicable, the terms of any guaranties for the Securities and any circumstances under which there may be additional obligors on the Securities;
(25) any provisions granting special rights to Holders when a specified event occurs;
(26) any provisions with respect to any special interest premium or other premium;
(27) any special tax provisions that apply to any series of Securities;
(28) with respect to any series of Securities that do not bear interest, the date for any required reports to the Trustee;
(29) any and all additional, eliminated or changed terms that will apply to such series of Securities; and
(30) any other terms of the series of Securities (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, except as permitted by Section 9.1(5)).

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to the Board Resolution referred to above and (subject to Section 3.3) set forth, or determined in the manner provided, in the Officers’ Certificate (including any exhibit attached thereto) referred to above or in any such indenture supplemental hereto.
If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officers’ Certificate (including any exhibit attached thereto) setting forth the terms of the series.
Section 3.2 Denominations.
The Securities of each series shall be issuable only in registered form without coupons and only in such denominations as shall be specified as contemplated by Section 3.1. In the absence of any such specified denomination with respect to the Securities of any series, the Securities of such series shall be issuable in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof.





Section 3.3 Execution, Authentication, Delivery and Dating.
The Securities shall be executed on behalf of the Company by its Chairman of the Board, its Vice Chairman of the Board, its Chief Executive Officer, its principal financial officer, its principal accounting officer, its President or one of its executive officers, and attested by its Treasurer, its Secretary or one of its Assistant Treasurers or Assistant Secretaries. The signature of any of these officers on the Securities may be manual or facsimile.
Securities bearing the manual or facsimile signatures of individuals who were at any time the proper officers of the Company shall bind the Company, notwithstanding that such individuals or any of them have ceased to hold such offices prior to the authentication and delivery of such Securities or did not hold such offices at the date of such Securities.
At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a Company Order for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, and the Trustee in accordance with the Company Order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities. If the form or terms of the Securities of the series have been established by or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions as permitted by Sections 2.1 and 3.1, in authenticating such Securities, and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 6.1) shall be fully protected in relying upon, a certified copy of such Board Resolution, an Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture hereto setting forth the terms of the series and an Opinion of Counsel (which opinion of Counsel may contain customary qualifications and exceptions), with such Opinion of Counsel stating,
(1) if the form of such Securities has been established by or pursuant to Board Resolution as permitted by Section 2.1, that such form has been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture;
(2) if the terms of such Securities have been established by or pursuant to Board Resolution as permitted by Section 3.1, that such terms have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture; and
(3) that such Securities, when authenticated and delivered by the Trustee and issued by the Company in the manner and subject to any conditions specified in such Opinion of Counsel, will constitute a valid and binding agreement of the Company, enforceable in accordance with their terms, subject to customary bankruptcy, insolvency, fraudulent transfer, reorganization, moratorium and similar laws of general applicability relating to or affecting creditors’ rights and to general equity principles and qualifications.
If such form or terms have been so established, the Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.
Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 3.1 and of this Section 3.3, if all Securities of a series are not to be originally issued at one time, it shall not be necessary to deliver an Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture hereto otherwise required pursuant to Section 3.1 or the Company Order and Opinion of Counsel otherwise required pursuant to this Section 3.3 at or prior to the authentication of each Security of such series if such documents are delivered at or prior to the authentication upon original issuance of the first Security of such series to be issued.
Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.





No Security shall be entitled to any benefit under this Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose unless there appears on such Security a certificate of authentication substantially in the form provided for herein executed by the Trustee by manual signature, and such certificate upon any Security shall be conclusive evidence, and the only evidence, that such Security has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if any Security shall have been authenticated and delivered hereunder but never issued and sold by the Company, and the Company shall deliver such Security to the Trustee for cancellation as provided in Section 3.9, for all purposes of this Indenture such Security shall be deemed never to have been authenticated and delivered hereunder and shall never be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.
Neither the Company nor the Trustee shall have any responsibility for any defect in the CUSIP number that appears on any Security, check, advice of payment, redemption notice or any other notice, and any such document may contain a statement to the effect that CUSIP numbers have been assigned by an independent service for convenience of reference and that neither the Company nor the Trustee shall be liable for any inaccuracy in such numbers.
Section 3.4 Temporary Securities.
Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and upon Company Order the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities which are printed, lithographed, typewritten, mimeographed or otherwise produced, in any authorized denomination, substantially of the tenor of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued and with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as the officers executing such Securities may determine, as evidenced by their execution of such Securities.
If temporary Securities of any series are issued, the Company will cause definitive Securities of that series to be prepared without unreasonable delay. After the preparation of definitive Securities of such series, the temporary Securities of such series shall be exchangeable for definitive Securities of such series upon surrender of the temporary Securities of such series at the office or agency of the Company in a Place of Payment for that series, without charge to the Holder. Upon surrender for cancellation of any one or more temporary Securities of any series, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor one or more definitive Securities of the same series, of any authorized denominations and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of any series shall in all respects be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series and tenor.
Section 3.5 Registration; Registration of Transfer and Exchange.
The Company shall cause to be kept at the Corporate Trust Office a register (the register maintained in such office and in any other office or agency of the Company in a Place of Payment being herein sometimes collectively referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall provide for the registration of Securities and of transfers of Securities. The Trustee is hereby appointed “Security Registrar” for the purpose of registering Securities and transfers of Securities as herein provided.
Upon surrender for registration of transfer of any Security of a series at the office or agency of the Company in a Place of Payment for that series, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in the





name of the designated transferee or transferees, one or more new Securities of the same series, of any authorized denominations and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.
At the option of the Holder, Securities of any series may be exchanged for other Securities of the same series, of any authorized denominations and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount, upon surrender of the Securities to be exchanged at such office or agency. Whenever any Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive.
All Securities issued upon any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities shall be the valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such registration of transfer or exchange.
Every Security presented or surrendered for registration of transfer or for exchange shall (if so required by the Company or the Trustee) be duly endorsed, or be accompanied by a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Security Registrar duly executed, by the Holder thereof or its attorney duly authorized in writing.
No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 3.4, 9.6 or 11.7 not involving any transfer.
If the Securities of any series (or of any series and specified tenor) are to be redeemed in part, the Company shall not be required (A) to issue, register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of that series (or of that series and specified tenor, as the case may be) during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of a notice of redemption of any such Securities selected for redemption under Section 11.3 and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, or (B) to register the transfer of or exchange any Security so selected for redemption in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any Security being redeemed in part.
The provisions of clauses (1), (2), (3) and (4) below shall apply only to Global Securities:
(1) Each Global Security authenticated under this Indenture shall be registered in the name of the Depositary designated for such Global Security or a nominee thereof and delivered to such Depositary or a nominee thereof or custodian therefor, and each such Global Security shall constitute a single Security for all purposes of this Indenture.
(2) Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, no Global Security may be exchanged in whole or in part for Securities registered, and no transfer of a Global Security in whole or in part may be registered, in the name of any Person other than the Depositary for such Global Security or a nominee thereof unless (A) such Depositary (i) has notified the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Global Security or (ii) has ceased to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, (B) there shall have occurred and be continuing an Event of Default with respect to such Global Security or (C) there shall exist such circumstances, if any, in addition to or in lieu of the foregoing as have been specified for this purpose as contemplated by Section 3.1.





(3) Subject to clause (2) above, any exchange of a Global Security for other Securities may be made in whole or in part, and all Securities issued in exchange for a Global Security or any portion thereof shall be registered in such names as the Depositary for such Global Security shall direct.
(4) Every Security authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for or in lieu of, a Global Security or any portion thereof, whether pursuant to this Section, Section 3.4, 3.6, 9.6 or 11.7 or otherwise, shall be authenticated and delivered in the form of, and shall be, a Global Security, unless such Security is registered in the name of a Person other than the Depositary for such Global Security or a nominee thereof.

Section 3.6 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.
If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.
If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (i) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (ii) such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them and any agent of either of them harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.
In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.
Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.
Every new Security of any series issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that series duly issued hereunder.
The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.
Section 3.7 Payment of Interest; Interest Rights Preserved.
Except as otherwise provided as contemplated by Section 3.1 with respect to any series of Securities, interest on any Security which is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date shall be paid to the Person in whose name that Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the Regular Record Date for such interest.
Any interest on any Security of any series which is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the Holder on





the relevant Regular Record Date by virtue of having been such Holder, and such Defaulted Interest may be paid by the Company, at its election in each case, as provided in clause (1) or (2) below:
(1) The Company may elect to make payment of any Defaulted Interest to the Persons in whose names the Securities of such series (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a Special Record Date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner. The Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each Security of such series and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a Special Record Date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall be not more than 15 days and not less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such Special Record Date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the Special Record Date therefor to be given to each Holder of Securities of such series in the manner set forth in Section 1.6, not less than 10 days prior to such Special Record Date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the Special Record Date therefor having been so given, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names the Securities of such series (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on such Special Record Date and shall no longer be payable pursuant to the following clause (2).
(2) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on the Securities of any series in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.
Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security delivered under this Indenture upon registration of transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, which were carried by such other Security.

Section 3.8 Persons Deemed Owners.
Prior to due presentment of a Security for registration of transfer, the Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee may treat the Person in whose name such Security is registered as the owner of such Security for the purpose of receiving payment of principal of and any premium and (subject to Section 3.7) any interest on such Security and for all other purposes whatsoever, whether or not such Security be overdue, and neither the Company, the Trustee nor any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall be affected by notice to the contrary.
Section 3.9 Cancellation.
All Securities surrendered for payment, redemption, registration of transfer or exchange or for credit against any sinking fund payment shall, if surrendered to any Person other than the Trustee, be delivered to the Trustee and shall be promptly canceled by it. The Company may at any time deliver to the Trustee for cancellation any Securities





previously authenticated and delivered hereunder which the Company may have acquired in any manner whatsoever, and may deliver to the Trustee (or to any other Person for delivery to the Trustee) for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated hereunder which the Company has not issued and sold, and all Securities so delivered shall be promptly canceled by the Trustee. No Securities shall be authenticated in lieu of or in exchange for any Securities canceled as provided in this Section, except as expressly permitted by this Indenture. All canceled Securities held by the Trustee shall be disposed of in accordance with its customary procedures.
Section 3.10 Computation of Interest.
Except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 3.1 for Securities of any series, interest on the Securities of each series shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.
ARTICLE 4
SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE
Section 4.1 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.
This Indenture shall upon Company Request cease to be of further effect (except as to any surviving rights of registration of transfer or exchange of Securities herein expressly provided for), and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, when

(1) either
(A) all Securities theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than (i) Securities which have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 3.6 and (ii) Securities for whose payment money has theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust by the Trustee or the Company and thereafter repaid to the Company or discharged from such trust, as provided in Section 10.3) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or
(B) all such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation

(i) have become due and payable, or
(ii) will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within one year, or
(iii) are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of the Company,

and the Company, in the case of (i), (ii) or (iii) above, has deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose money in an amount sufficient to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, for principal and any premium and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of Securities which have become due and payable) or to the Stated Maturity or Redemption Date, as the case may be;

(2) the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company; and





(3) the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture have been complied with.

Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company to the Trustee under Section 6.7, the obligations of the Trustee to any Authenticating Agent under Section 6.14 and, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to subclause (B) of clause (1) of this Section, the obligations of the Trustee under Section 4.2 and the last paragraph of Section 10.3 shall survive.
Section 4.2 Application of Trust Money.
Subject to the provisions of the last paragraph of Section 10.3, all money deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 4.1 shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the Persons entitled thereto, of the principal and any premium and interest for whose payment such money has been deposited with the Trustee.
ARTICLE 5
REMEDIES
Section 5.1 Events of Default.
“Event of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any series, means any one of the following events (whatever the reason for such Event of Default and whether it shall be voluntary or involuntary or be effected by operation of law or pursuant to any judgment, decree or order of any court or any order, rule or regulation of any administrative or governmental body), unless in the Board Resolution (or an Officers’ Certificate detailing such establishment pursuant to such Board Resolution) or supplemental indenture establishing such series, it is provided that such series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:
(1) default in the payment of the principal or the Redemption Price of or any premium on any Security of that series at its Maturity; or
(2) default in the payment of any interest upon any Security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days; or
(3) default in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, when and as due by the terms of a Security of that series; or
(4) default in the performance, or breach, of any covenant or warranty of the Company in this Indenture (other than a covenant or warranty a default in whose performance or whose breach is elsewhere in this Section specifically dealt with or which has expressly been included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of series of Securities other than that series), and continuance of such default or breach for a period of 90 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of that series a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or





(5) the entry by a court having jurisdiction in the premises of (A) a decree or order for relief in respect of the Company in an involuntary case or proceeding under any applicable Federal or State bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or other similar law or (B) a decree or order adjudging the Company a bankrupt or insolvent, or approving as properly filed a petition seeking reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition of or in respect of the Company under any applicable Federal or State law, or appointing a custodian, receiver, liquidator, assignee, trustee, sequestrator or other similar official of the Company or of any substantial part of its property, or ordering the winding up or liquidation of its affairs, and the continuance of any such decree or order for relief or any such other decree or order unstayed and in effect for a period of 90 consecutive days; or
(6) the commencement by the Company of a voluntary case or proceeding under any applicable Federal or State bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or other similar law or of any other case or proceeding to be adjudicated a bankrupt or insolvent, or the consent by it to the entry of a decree or order for relief in respect of the Company in an involuntary case or proceeding under any applicable Federal or State bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or other similar law or to the commencement of any bankruptcy or insolvency case or proceeding against it, or the filing by it of a petition or answer or consent seeking reorganization or relief under any applicable Federal or State law, or the consent by it to the filing of such petition or to the appointment of or taking possession by a custodian, receiver, liquidator, assignee, trustee, sequestrator or other similar official of the Company or of any substantial part of its property, or the making by it of an assignment for the benefit of creditors, or the admission by it in writing of its inability to pay its debts generally as they become due, or the taking of corporate action by the Company in furtherance of any such action; or
(7) any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that series in the Board Resolution (or in an Officers’ Certificate detailing such establishment pursuant to such Board Resolution) or supplemental indenture establishing that series.
Section 5.2 Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.
(a) Unless the Board Resolution (or Officers’ Certificate detailing such establishment pursuant to such Board Resolution) or supplemental indenture establishing such series provides otherwise, if an Event of Default (other than an Event of Default specified in Section 5.1(5) or 5.1(6)) with respect to Securities of any series at the time Outstanding occurs and is continuing, then in every such case the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of that series may declare the principal amount of all the Securities of that series (or, if any Securities of that series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount of such Securities as may be specified by the terms thereof), and premium, if any, together with accrued and unpaid interest, if any, thereon, to be due and payable immediately, by a notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by the Holders), and upon any such declaration such principal amount (or specified amount), and premium, if any, together with accrued and unpaid interest, if any, thereon, shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in Section 5.1(5) or 5.1(6) with respect to Securities of any series at the time Outstanding occurs, the principal amount of all the Securities of that series (or, if any Securities of that series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount of such Securities as may be specified by the terms thereof), and premium, if any, together with accrued and unpaid interest thereon, if any, shall automatically, and without any declaration or other action on the part of the Trustee or any Holder, become immediately due and payable.





(b) Notwithstanding the foregoing, at the election of the Company, the sole remedy with respect to an Event of Default for the failure by the Company to comply with its obligations under Section 314(a)(1) of the Trust Indenture Act relating to the Company’s failure to file any documents or reports that the Company is required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act or of its covenants set forth in Section 7.4 (any such Event of Default, a “Reporting Default”), shall for the first 180 calendar days after the occurrence of such Reporting Default consist exclusively of the right to receive additional interest (the “Additional Interest”) on the Securities at an annual rate equal to (i) 0.25% of the principal amount of the Securities for the first 180 calendar days after the occurrence of such Reporting Default and (ii) 0.50% of the principal amount of the Securities from the 181st day to, and including, the 360th day after the occurrence of such Reporting Default. If the Company so elects, the Additional Interest shall accrue on all Outstanding Securities from and including the date on which such Reporting Default first occurs until such violation is cured or waived and shall be payable as provided in Section 3.7. On the 361st day after such Reporting Default (if such violation is not cured or waived prior to such 361st calendar day), then the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the Outstanding securities may declare the principal of, and premium, if any, together with accrued and unpaid interest thereon, if any, on all such Securities to be due and payable immediately.
If the Company elects to pay the Additional Interest as the sole remedy for the Reporting Default, the Company shall notify in writing, by a certificate, the Holders, the Paying Agent and the Trustee of such election at any time on or before the close of business on the first Business Day following the date on which such Event of Default first occurs. Unless and until a Responsible Officer of the Trustee receives at the Corporate Trust Office such a certificate, the Trustee may assume without inquiry that Additional Interest is not payable. The Company shall pay the Additional Interest semi-annually in arrears, with the first semi-annual payment due on the first Interest Payment Date following the date of such Reporting Default, in the same manner as described on the face of the Security.
(c) At any time after such a declaration of acceleration with respect to Securities of any series has been made and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the Trustee as hereinafter in this Article provided, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of that series, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if
(1) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay
(A) all overdue interest on all Securities of that series,
(B) the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any Securities of that series which have become due otherwise than by such declaration of acceleration and any interest thereon at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities,
(C) to the extent that payment of such interest is lawful, interest upon overdue interest at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities, and
(D) all sums paid or advanced by the Trustee hereunder and the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel; and
(2) all Events of Default with respect to Securities of that series, other than the non-payment of the principal of Securities of that series which have become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived as provided in Section 5.13.





No such rescission shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.
Section 5.3 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.
The Company covenants that if

(1) default is made in the payment of the principal or the Redemption Price of (or premium, if any, on) any Security at the Maturity thereof, or
(2) default is made in the payment of any interest on any Security when such interest becomes due and payable and such default continues for a period of 30 days,

the Company will, upon demand of the Trustee, pay to it, for the benefit of the Holders of such Securities, the whole amount then due and payable on such Securities for principal and any premium and interest and, to the extent that payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable, interest on any overdue principal and premium and on any overdue interest, at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities, and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel.
If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce its rights and the rights of the Holders of Securities of such series by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted herein, or to enforce any other proper remedy.
Section 5.4 Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.
In case of any judicial proceeding relative to the Company (or any other obligor upon the Securities), its property or its creditors, the Trustee shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceeding or otherwise, to take any and all actions authorized under the Trust Indenture Act in order to have claims of the Holders and the Trustee allowed in any such proceeding. In particular, the Trustee shall be authorized to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and to distribute the same; and any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 6.7.
No provision of this Indenture shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding; provided, however, that the Trustee may, on behalf of the Holders, vote for the election of a trustee in bankruptcy or similar official and be a member of a creditors’ or other similar committee.





Section 5.5 Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.
All rights of action and claims under this Indenture or the Securities may be prosecuted and enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities or the production thereof in any proceeding relating thereto, and any such proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for the payment of the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such judgment has been recovered.
Section 5.6 Application of Money Collected.
Any money collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such money on account of principal or any premium or interest, upon presentation of the Securities and the notation thereon of the payment if only partially paid and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:
FIRST: To the payment of all amounts due the Trustee under Section 6.7;
SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid for principal of and any premium, if any, and interest on the Securities in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal and any premium, if any, and interest, respectively; and
THIRD: The balance, if any, to the Company or any other Person or Persons entitled thereto.
Section 5.7 Limitation on Suits.
No Holder of any Security of any series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless
(1) such Holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that series;
(2) the Holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of that series shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;
(3) such Holder or Holders have offered to the Trustee reasonable indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request;
(4) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and
(5) no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of that series;






it being understood and intended that no one or more of such Holders shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue of, or by availing of, any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other of such Holders, or to obtain or to seek to obtain priority or preference over any other of such Holders or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal and ratable benefit of all of such Holders.
Section 5.8 Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal, Premium and Interest.
Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, the Holder of any Security shall have the right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of and any premium and (subject to Section 3.7) interest on such Security on the respective Stated Maturities expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the Redemption Date), and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment, and such rights shall not be impaired without the consent of such Holder.
Section 5.9 Restoration of Rights and Remedies.
If the Trustee or any Holder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceeding, the Company, the Trustee and the Holders shall be restored severally and respectively to their former positions hereunder and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Trustee and the Holders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.
Section 5.10 Rights and Remedies Cumulative.
Except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities in the last paragraph of Section 3.6, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.
Section 5.11 Delay or Omission Not Waiver.
No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any Securities to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein. Every right and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee (subject to the limitations contained in this Indenture) or by the Holders, as the case may be.
Section 5.12 Control by Holders.
The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee, with respect to the Securities of such series, provided that






(1) such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture and the Trustee shall not have determined that the action so directed would be unjustly prejudicial to Holders of Securities of that series, or any other series, not taking part in such direction; and
(2) the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction or this Indenture.
Section 5.13 Waiver of Past Defaults.
The Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such series waive any past default hereunder with respect to such series and its consequences, except

(1) a default in the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any Security of such series as and when the same shall become due and payable by the terms thereof, otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest, principal and premium, if any, has been deposited with the Trustee); or
(2) in respect of a covenant or provision hereof which under Article 9 cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Security of such series affected.

Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.
Section 5.14 Undertaking for Costs.
In any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, a court may require any party litigant in such suit to file an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and may assess costs against any such party litigant, in the manner and to the extent provided in the Trust Indenture Act; provided that neither this Section nor the Trust Indenture Act shall be deemed to authorize any court to require such an undertaking or to make such an assessment in any suit instituted by the Company.
This Section does not apply to a suit by a Holder to enforce payment of principal of or interest on any Security on the respective due dates or a suit by Holders of more than 10% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities.
Section 5.15 Waiver of Usury, Stay or Extension Laws.
The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, or plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any usury, stay or extension law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture; and the Company (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waives all benefit or advantage of any such law and covenants that it will not hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law had been enacted.





ARTICLE 6
THE TRUSTEE
Section 6.1 Certain Duties and Responsibilities.
The duties and responsibilities of the Trustee shall be as provided by the Trust Indenture Act and as set forth herein. Notwithstanding the foregoing, no provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties hereunder, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers if it shall have reasonable grounds for believing that repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity against such risk or liability is not reasonably assured to it. Whether or not therein expressly so provided, every provision of this Indenture relating to the conduct or affecting the liability of or affording protection to the Trustee shall be subject to the provisions of this Section.
Section 6.2 Notice of Defaults.
If a default occurs hereunder with respect to Securities of any series, the Trustee shall give the Holders of Securities of such series notice of such default as and to the extent provided by the Trust Indenture Act; provided, however, that except in the case of a default in the payment of principal or Redemption Price of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of such series or in the payment of any sinking fund installment or any conversion or exchange right applicable to Securities of such series, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as a trust committee of directors and/or Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determine that the withholding of such notice is in the interests of the holders of Securities of such series; provided, further, however, that in the case of any default of the character specified in Section 5.1(4) with respect to Securities of such series, no such notice to Holders shall be given until at least 60 days after the occurrence thereof. For the purpose of this Section, the term “default” means any event which is, or after notice or lapse of time or both would become, an Event of Default with respect to Securities of such series.
Except with respect to Section 10.1, the Trustee shall have no duty to inquire as to the performance of the Company with respect to the covenants contained in Article 10. In addition, the Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of an Event of Default except (i) any default or Event of Default occurring pursuant to Sections 5.1(1), 5.1(2) and 5.1(3) (defaults in payments on the Securities) or (ii) any default or Event of Default of which the Trustee shall have received written notification or obtained actual knowledge.
Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under Section 7.4 is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of their covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely conclusively on Officers’ Certificates).
Section 6.3 Certain Rights of Trustee.
Subject to the provisions of Section 6.1:
(1) in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;





(2) any request or direction of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Company Request or Company Order, and any resolution of the Board of Directors shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution;
(3) whenever in the administration of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking, suffering or omitting any action hereunder, the Trustee (unless other evidence be herein specifically prescribed) is entitled to and may, in the absence of bad faith on its part, rely upon an Officers’ Certificate;
(4) the Trustee may consult with counsel and the written advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;
(5) the Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request or direction of any of the Holders pursuant to this Indenture, unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction;
(6) the Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it may see fit, and, if the Trustee shall determine to make such further inquiry or investigation, it shall be entitled to examine the books, records and premises of the Company, personally or by agent or attorney; and
(7) the Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder.
Section 6.4 Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities.
The recitals contained herein and in the Securities, except the Trustee’s certificates of authentication, shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and neither the Trustee nor any Authenticating Agent assumes any responsibility for their correctness. The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity, sufficiency or priority of this Indenture or of the Securities. Neither the Trustee nor any Authenticating Agent shall be accountable for the use or application by the Company of Securities or the proceeds thereof.
Section 6.5 May Hold Securities and Act as Trustee under Other Indentures.
The Trustee, any Authenticating Agent, any Paying Agent, any Security Registrar or any other agent of the Company, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and, subject to Sections 6.8 and 6.13, may otherwise deal with the Company with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, Authenticating Agent, Paying Agent, Security Registrar or such other agent.
Subject to the limitations imposed by the Trust Indenture Act, nothing in this Indenture shall prohibit the Trustee from becoming and acting as trustee under other indentures under which other securities, or certificates of interest of





participation in other securities, of the Company are outstanding in the same manner as if it were not Trustee hereunder.
Section 6.6 Money Held in Trust.
Money held by the Trustee in trust hereunder need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any money received by it hereunder except as otherwise agreed with the Company.
Section 6.7 Compensation and Reimbursement.
The Company agrees:
(1) to pay to the Trustee from time to time reasonable compensation for all services rendered by it hereunder (which compensation shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust);
(2) except as otherwise expressly provided herein, to reimburse the Trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its agents and counsel), except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may be attributable to its negligence or bad faith; and
(3) to indemnify the Trustee for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without negligence or bad faith on its part, arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of the trust or trusts hereunder, including the costs and expenses of defending itself against any claim or liability in connection with the exercise or performance of any of its powers or duties hereunder.
When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 5.1(5) or Section 5.1(6) hereof occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services (including the fees and expenses of its agents and counsel) are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or similar law.
Section 6.8 Conflicting Interests.
If the Trustee has or shall acquire a conflicting interest within the meaning of the Trust Indenture Act and there is an Event of Default under the Securities of that series, the Trustee shall either eliminate such interest or resign, to the extent and in the manner provided by, and subject to the provisions of, the Trust Indenture Act and this Indenture. To the extent permitted by the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee shall not be deemed to have a conflicting interest by virtue of being a trustee under this Indenture with respect to Securities of more than one series.
Section 6.9 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.
There shall at all times be one (and only one) Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of each series, which may be Trustee hereunder for Securities of one or more other series. Each Trustee shall be a Person that is eligible pursuant to the Trust Indenture Act to act as such and has (or if the Trustee is a member of a bank holding company system, its bank holding company has) a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000. If any such





Person or bank holding company publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of its supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section and to the extent permitted by the Trust Indenture Act, the combined capital and surplus of such Person or bank holding company shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. If at any time the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, it shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect hereinafter specified in this Article.
Section 6.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.
No resignation or removal of the Trustee and no appointment of a successor Trustee pursuant to this Article shall become effective until the acceptance of appointment by the successor Trustee in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 6.11.
The Trustee may resign at any time with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company. If the instrument of acceptance by a successor Trustee required by Section 6.11 shall not have been delivered to the Trustee within 30 days after the giving of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.
The Trustee may be removed at any time with respect to the Securities of any series by Act of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series, delivered to the Trustee and to the Company.
If at any time:
(1) the Trustee shall fail to comply with Section 6.8 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Holder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security for at least six months, or
(2) the Trustee shall cease to be eligible under Section 6.9 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Holder, or
(3) the Trustee shall become incapable of acting or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation,

then, in any such case, (A) the Company by a Board Resolution may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities, or (B) subject to Section 5.14, any Holder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security for at least six months may, on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee with respect to all Securities and the appointment of a successor Trustee or Trustees.
If the Trustee shall resign, be removed or become incapable of acting, or if a vacancy shall occur in the office of Trustee for any cause, with respect to the Securities of one or more series, the Company, by a Board Resolution, shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee or Trustees with respect to the Securities of that or those series (it being understood that any such successor Trustee may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more or all of such series and that at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series)





and shall comply with the applicable requirements of Section 6.11. If, within one year after such resignation, removal or incapability, or the occurrence of such vacancy, a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series shall be appointed by Act of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series delivered to the Company and the retiring Trustee, the successor Trustee so appointed shall, forthwith upon its acceptance of such appointment in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 6.11, become the successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series and to that extent supersede the successor Trustee appointed by the Company. If no successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series shall have been so appointed by the Company or the Holders and accepted appointment in the manner required by Section 6.11, the retiring Trustee may petition, or any Holder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security of such series for at least six months may petition, on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.
The Company shall give notice of each resignation and each removal of the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series and each appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series to all Holders of Securities of such series in the manner provided in Section 1.6. Each notice shall include the name of the successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series and the address of its Corporate Trust Office.
Section 6.11 Acceptance of Appointment by Successor.
In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor Trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor Trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor Trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor Trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of its charges, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor Trustee all the rights, powers and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor Trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.
In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor Trustee shall accept such appointment and which (1) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor Trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates, (2) if the retiring Trustee is not retiring with respect to all Securities, shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (3) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust and that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein and each such successor Trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor Trustee, such retiring Trustee





shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor Trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates.
Upon request of any such successor Trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor Trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in the first or second preceding paragraph, as the case may be.
No successor Trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor Trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article.
Section 6.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.
Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to all or substantially all the corporate trust business of the Trustee (including the administration of the trust created by this Indenture), shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided such corporation shall be otherwise qualified and eligible under this Article, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto. In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities. In the event that any Securities shall not have been authenticated by such predecessor Trustee, any such successor Trustee may authenticate and deliver such Securities in either its own name or that of such predecessor Trustee, with the full force and effect which this Indenture provides for the certificate of authentication of the Trustee.
Section 6.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company.
If and when the Trustee shall be or become a creditor of the Company (or any other obligor upon the Securities), the Trustee shall be subject to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act regarding the collection of claims against the Company (or any such other obligor).
Section 6.14 Appointment of Authenticating Agent.
The Trustee may appoint an Authenticating Agent or Agents with respect to one or more series of Securities which shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon original issue and upon exchange, registration of transfer or partial redemption thereof or pursuant to Section 3.6, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. Wherever reference is made in this Indenture to the authentication and delivery of Securities by the Trustee or the Trustee’s certificate of authentication, such reference shall be deemed to include authentication and delivery on behalf of the Trustee by an Authenticating Agent and a certificate of authentication executed on behalf of the Trustee by an Authenticating Agent. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America, any state thereof or the District of Columbia, authorized under such laws to act as Authenticating Agent, having (or if the Authenticating Agent is a member of a bank holding company system, its bank holding company has) a combined capital and surplus of not less than $50,000,000 and subject to





supervision or examination by Federal or State authority. If such Authenticating Agent publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of said supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such Authenticating Agent shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. If at any time an Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, such Authenticating Agent shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in this Section.
Any corporation into which an Authenticating Agent may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which such Authenticating Agent shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to the corporate agency or corporate trust business of an Authenticating Agent, shall continue to be an Authenticating Agent, provided such corporation shall be otherwise eligible under this Section, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of the Trustee or the Authenticating Agent.
An Authenticating Agent may resign at any time by giving written notice thereof to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time terminate the agency of an Authenticating Agent by giving written notice thereof to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon receiving such a notice of resignation or upon such a termination, or in case at any time such Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee may appoint a successor Authenticating Agent which shall be acceptable to the Company and shall give notice of such appointment in the manner provided in Section 1.6 to all Holders of Securities of the series with respect to which such Authenticating Agent will serve. Any successor Authenticating Agent upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder, with like effect as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent. No successor Authenticating Agent shall be appointed unless eligible under the provisions of this Section.
The Trustee agrees to pay to each Authenticating Agent from time to time reasonable compensation for its services under this Section, and the Trustee shall be entitled to be reimbursed for such payments, subject to the provisions of Section 6.7.
If an appointment with respect to one or more series is made pursuant to this Section 6.14, the Securities of such series may have endorsed thereon, in lieu of the Trustee’s certificate of authentication, an alternative certificate of authentication in the following form:
This is one of the Securities of the series designated therein referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.





 
 
 
 
 
_______________,
As Trustee
 
 
 
 
By:
 
 
 
As Authenticating Agent
 
 
 
 
By:
 
 
 
Authorized Officer

ARTICLE 7
HOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY TRUSTEE AND COMPANY
Section 7.1 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Holders.
The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee
(1) semi-annually, not later than 15 days after the Regular Record Date for each respective series of Securities, a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the Holders of Securities of each series as of such Regular Record Date, as the case may be, or if there is no Regular Record Date for such series of Securities, semi-annually, and
(2) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished;

provided that no such list need be furnished by the Company to the Trustee so long as the Trustee is acting as Security Registrar.
Section 7.2 Preservation of Information; Communications to Holders.
The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, the names and addresses of Holders contained in the most recent list furnished to the Trustee as provided in Section 7.1 and the names and addresses of Holders received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar. The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 7.1 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.
The rights of Holders to communicate with other Holders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities, and the corresponding rights and privileges of the Trustee, shall be as provided by the Trust Indenture Act.





Every Holder of Securities, by receiving and holding the same, agrees with the Company and the Trustee that neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any agent of either of them shall be held accountable by reason of any disclosure of information as to names and addresses of Holders made pursuant to the Trust Indenture Act.
Section 7.3 Reports by Trustee.
The Trustee shall transmit to Holders such reports concerning the Trustee and its actions under this Indenture as may be required pursuant to the Trust Indenture Act at the times and in the manner provided pursuant thereto.
Reports so required to be transmitted at stated intervals of not more than 12 months shall be transmitted no later than July 15 in each calendar year, commencing with the first July 15 after the first issuance of Securities pursuant to this Indenture.
A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Holders, be filed by the Trustee with each stock exchange upon which any Securities are listed, with the Commission and with the Company. The Company will notify the Trustee when any Securities are listed on any stock exchange.
Section 7.4 Reports by Company.
Any information, documents or other reports that the Company shall file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (excluding any such information, documents or reports, or portions thereof, subject to confidential treatment and any correspondence with the Commission) shall be filed with the Trustee within 15 days after the same is filed with the Commission (giving effect to any grace period provided by Rule 12b-25 under the Exchange Act); provided that any such information, documents or reports filed or furnished with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval (or EDGAR) system shall be deemed to be filed with the Trustee as of the time such information, documents or reports are filed or furnished via EDGAR.
ARTICLE 8
CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, CONVEYANCE, TRANSFER OR LEASE
Section 8.1 Company May Consolidate, etc., Only on Certain Terms.
The Company shall not consolidate with or merge into any other Person (other than to one or more Subsidiaries of the Company) (in a transaction in which the Company is not the surviving corporation) or convey, transfer or lease its properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any Person (other than a Subsidiary of the Company), unless:
(1) in case the Company shall consolidate with or merge into another Person (in a transaction in which the Company is not the surviving corporation) or convey, transfer or lease its properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any Person, the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Company is merged or the Person which acquires by conveyance or transfer, or which leases, the properties and assets of the Company substantially as an entirety shall be a corporation, limited liability company, partnership, trust or other business entity, shall be organized and validly existing under the laws of the United States of America, any state thereof or the District of Columbia and shall expressly assume, by an indenture supplemental hereto, executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form satisfactory to the Trustee, the due and punctual payment of the principal of





and any premium and interest on all the Securities and the performance or observance of every covenant of this Indenture on the part of the Company to be performed or observed or as otherwise specified pursuant to Section 3.1, by supplemental indenture satisfactory in form to the Trustee, executed and delivered to the Trustee, by the Person (if other than the Company) formed by such consolidation or into which the Company shall have been merged or by the Person which shall have acquired the Company’s assets;
(2) immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no Event of Default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing; and
(3) the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such consolidation, merger, conveyance, transfer or lease and, if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with such transaction, such supplemental indenture comply with this Article and that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to such transaction have been complied with.

Section 8.2 Successor Substituted.
Upon any consolidation of the Company with, or merger of the Company into, any other Person or any conveyance, transfer or lease of the properties and assets of the Company substantially as an entirety in accordance with Section 8.1, the successor Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Company is merged or to which such conveyance, transfer or lease is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor Person had been named as the Company herein, and thereafter, except in the case of a lease, the predecessor Person shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.
ARTICLE 9
SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES
Section 9.1 Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Holders.
Without the consent of any Holders, the Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee, at any time and from time to time, may enter into one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in form satisfactory to the Trustee, for any of the following purposes:

(1) to evidence the succession of another Person to the Company, or successive successions, and the assumption by any such successor of the covenants of the Company herein and in the Securities in compliance with Article 8; or
(2) to add to the covenants of the Company for the benefit of the Holders of all or any series of Securities (and if such covenants are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such covenants are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series) or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company; or
(3) to add any additional Events of Default for the benefit of the Holders of all or any series of Securities (and if such additional Events of Default are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such additional Events of Default are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series); or





(4) to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture to such extent as shall be necessary to permit or facilitate the issuance of Securities in registrable or not registrable as to principal, and with or without interest coupons, or to permit or facilitate the issuance of Securities in uncertificated form; or
(5) to add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of this Indenture in respect of one or more series of Securities, provided that any such addition, change or elimination (A) shall neither (i) apply to any Security of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision nor (ii) modify the rights of the Holder of any such Security with respect to such provision or (B) shall become effective only when there is no such Security Outstanding; or
(6) to secure the Securities, including provisions regarding the circumstances under which collateral may be released or substituted; or
(7) to add or provide for a guaranty of the Securities or additional obligors on the Securities; or
(8) to establish the form or terms of Securities of any series as permitted by Sections 2.1 and 3.1; or
(9) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, pursuant to the requirements of Section 6.11; or
(10) to conform this Indenture to the description of the Securities set forth in the Prospectus for such series of Securities; or
(11) to cure any ambiguity, to correct or supplement any provision herein which may be defective or inconsistent with any other provision herein, or to make any other provisions with respect to matters or questions arising under this Indenture; or
(12) to supplement any of the provisions of the Indenture to such extent as shall be necessary to permit or facilitate the defeasance and discharge of any series of Securities pursuant to Articles 4 and 13, provided that any such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of Securities of such series or any other series of Securities in any material respect; or
(13) make such other provisions in regards to matters or questions arising under the Indenture or any supplemental indenture hereto as the Board of Directors may deem necessary or desirable, and which does not in each case adversely affect the interest of the Holders of Securities or any series; or
(14) comply with requirements of the Commission in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the Indenture under the Trust indenture Act.

Section 9.2 Supplemental Indentures with Consent of Holders.
With the consent of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of each series affected by such supplemental indenture, by Act of said Holders delivered to the Company and the Trustee, the Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the





provisions of this Indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Holders of Securities of such series under this Indenture; provided, however, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Security affected thereby,

(1) change the Stated Maturity of the principal of, or any installment of principal of or interest on, any Security, or reduce the principal amount thereof or the rate of interest thereon or any premium payable upon the redemption or repurchase thereof, whether at the option of the Company or at the option of the Holder, or reduce the amount of any sinking fund payments, or reduce the amount of the principal of an Original Issue Discount Security or any other Security which would be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 5.2 of the Indenture, or change the Place of Payment or currency in which, any Security or any premium or interest thereon is payable, or impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after the Stated Maturity thereof (or, in the case of redemption, on or after the Redemption Date), or
(2) reduce the percentage in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, the consent of whose Holders is required for any such supplemental indenture, or the consent of whose Holders is required for any waiver (of compliance with certain provisions of this Indenture or certain defaults hereunder and their consequences) provided for in this Indenture, or
(3) modify any of the provisions of this Section or Section 5.13, except to increase any such percentage or to provide that certain other provisions of this Indenture cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Security affected thereby; provided, however, that this clause shall not be deemed to require the consent of any Holder with respect to changes in the references to “the Trustee” and concomitant changes in this Section, or the deletion of this proviso, in accordance with the requirements of Sections 6.11 and 9.1(9), or
(4) in the case of Securities of any series that are subordinated debt securities, modify the subordination provisions in a materially adverse manner.

A supplemental indenture which changes or eliminates any covenant or other provision of this Indenture which has expressly been included solely for the benefit of one or more particular series of Securities, or which modifies the rights of the Holders of Securities of such series with respect to such covenant or other provision, shall be deemed not to affect the rights under this Indenture of the Holders of Securities of any other series.
It shall not be necessary for any Act of Holders under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such Act shall approve the substance thereof.
Section 9.3 Execution of Supplemental Indentures.
In executing, or accepting the additional trusts created by, any supplemental indenture permitted by this Article or the modifications thereby of the trusts created by this Indenture, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Sections 6.1 and 6.3) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating that the execution of such supplemental indenture is authorized or permitted by this Indenture. The Trustee may, but shall not be obligated to, enter into any such supplemental indenture which affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.





Section 9.4 Effect of Supplemental Indentures.
Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture under this Article, this Indenture shall be modified in accordance therewith, and such supplemental indenture shall form a part of this Indenture for all purposes; and every Holder of Securities theretofore or thereafter authenticated and delivered hereunder shall be bound thereby.
Section 9.5 Conformity with Trust Indenture Act.
The Indenture shall incorporate and be governed by the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act that are required to be part of and to govern indentures qualified under the Trust Indenture Act.
Section 9.6 Reference in Securities to Supplemental Indentures.
Securities of any series authenticated and delivered after the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to this Article may, and shall if required by the Trustee, bear a notation in form approved by the Trustee as to any matter provided for in such supplemental indenture. If the Company shall so determine, new Securities of any series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Trustee and the Company, to any such supplemental indenture may be prepared and executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee in exchange for Outstanding Securities of such series.
ARTICLE 10
COVENANTS
Section 10.1 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.
The Company covenants and agrees for the benefit of each series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay the principal of and any premium and interest on the Securities of that series in accordance with the terms of the Securities and this Indenture.
Section 10.2 Maintenance of Office or Agency.
The Company will maintain in each Place of Payment for any series of Securities an office or agency where Securities of that series may be presented or surrendered for payment, where Securities of that series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be served. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the location, and any change in the location, of such office or agency. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands. Unless otherwise provided in a supplemental indenture or pursuant to Section 3.1 hereof, the Place of Payment for any series of Securities shall be the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.
The Company may also from time to time designate one or more other offices or agencies where the Securities of one or more series may be presented or surrendered for any or all such purposes and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligation to maintain an office or agency in each Place of Payment for Securities of any series for





such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the location of any such other office or agency.
Section 10.3 Money for Securities Payments To Be Held in Trust.
If the Company shall at any time act as its own Paying Agent with respect to any series of Securities, it will, on or before each due date of the principal of or any premium or interest on any of the Securities of that series, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient to pay the principal and any premium and interest so becoming due until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of its action or failure so to act.
Whenever the Company shall have one or more Paying Agents for any series of Securities, it will, on or prior to each due date of the principal of or any premium or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with a Paying Agent a sum sufficient to pay such amount, such sum to be held as provided by the Trust Indenture Act, and (unless such Paying Agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of its action or failure so to act.
The Company will cause each Paying Agent for any series of Securities other than the Trustee to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such Paying Agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section, that such Paying Agent will (1) comply with the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act applicable to it as a Paying Agent and (2) during the continuance of any default by the Company (or any other obligor upon the Securities of that series) in the making of any payment in respect of the Securities of that series, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums held in trust by such Paying Agent for payment in respect of the Securities of that series.
The Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or by Company Order direct any Paying Agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such Paying Agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same trusts as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such Paying Agent; and, upon such payment by any Paying Agent to the Trustee, such Paying Agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.
Any amounts deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent, or then held by the Company, in trust for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any Security of any series and remaining unclaimed for a period ending on the earlier of the date that is ten Business Days prior to the date such money would escheat to the State or two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable shall be paid to the Company on Company Request, or (if then held by the Company) shall be discharged from such trust; and the Holder of such Security shall thereafter, as an unsecured general creditor, look only to the Company for payment thereof, and all liability of the Trustee or such Paying Agent with respect to such trust money, and all liability of the Company as trustee thereof, shall thereupon cease; provided, however, that the Trustee or such Paying Agent, before being required to make any such repayment, may at the expense of the Company cause to be published once, in a newspaper published in the English language, customarily published on each Business Day and of general circulation in each Place of Payment, notice that such money remains unclaimed and that, after a date specified therein, which shall not be less than 30 days from the date of such publication, any unclaimed balance of such money then remaining will be repaid to the Company.





Section 10.4 Statement by Officers as to Default.
The Company will deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company ending after the date hereof, an Officers’ Certificate, stating whether or not to the best knowledge of the signers thereof the Company is in default in the performance and observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions of this Indenture (without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided hereunder) and, if the Company shall be in default, specifying all such defaults and the nature and status thereof of which they may have knowledge. The fiscal year of the Company currently ends on December 31; and the Company will give the Trustee prompt written notice of any change of its fiscal year.
Section 10.5 Existence.
Subject to Article 8, the Company will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its existence.
Section 10.6 Waiver of Certain Covenants.
Except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 3.1 for Securities of such series, the Company may, with respect to the Securities of any series, omit in any particular instance to comply with any term, provision or condition set forth in any covenant provided pursuant to Section 3.1(21) or 9.1(2), for the benefit of the Holders of such series if before the time for such compliance the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series shall, by Act of such Holders, either waive such compliance in such instance or generally waive compliance with such term, provision or condition, but no such waiver shall extend to or affect such term, provision or condition except to the extent so expressly waived, and, until such waiver shall become effective, the obligations of the Company and the duties of the Trustee in respect of any such term, provision or condition shall remain in full force and effect.
ARTICLE 11
REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES
Section 11.1 Applicability of Article.
Securities of any series that are redeemable before their Stated Maturity shall be redeemable in accordance with their terms and (except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 3.1 for such Securities) in accordance with this Article.
Section 11.2 Election to Redeem; Notice to Trustee.
The election of the Company to redeem any Securities shall be evidenced by a Board Resolution or pursuant to a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate in the manner specified by Section 3.1 for such Securities. Unless otherwise specified in a supplemental indenture or in an Officers’ Certificate in the manner specified by Section 3.1 for such securities, in case of any redemption at the election of the Company of less than all the Securities of any series (including any such redemption affecting only a single Security), the Company shall, at least 60 days prior to the Redemption Date fixed by the Company (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee or is specified in the Board Resolution (or in an Officers’ Certificate pursuant to such Board Resolution detailing such establishment) or supplemental indenture establishing such series), notify the Trustee of such





Redemption Date, of the principal amount of Securities of such series to be redeemed and, if applicable, of the tenor of the Securities to be redeemed.
Section 11.3 Selection by Trustee of Securities to Be Redeemed.
Unless otherwise specified in a supplemental indenture or in an Officers’ Certificate in the manner specified by Section 3.1 for such securities, if less than all the Securities of any series are to be redeemed (unless all the Securities of such series and of a specified tenor are to be redeemed or unless such redemption affects only a single Security), the particular Securities to be redeemed shall be selected not more than 60 days prior to the Redemption Date by the Trustee, from the Outstanding Securities of such series not previously called for redemption, by lot, or in the Trustee’s discretion, on a pro-rata basis, provided that the unredeemed portion of the principal amount of any Security shall be in an authorized denomination (which shall not be less than the minimum authorized denomination) for such Security. Unless otherwise specified in a supplemental indenture or in an Officers’ Certificate in the manner specified by Section 3.1 for such securities, if less than all the Securities of such series and of a specified tenor are to be redeemed (unless such redemption affects only a single Security), the particular Securities to be redeemed shall be selected not more than 60 days prior to the Redemption Date by the Trustee, from the Outstanding Securities of such series and specified tenor not previously called for redemption in accordance with the preceding sentence.
The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company in writing of the Securities selected for redemption as aforesaid and, in case of any Securities selected for partial redemption as aforesaid, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed.
The provisions of the three preceding paragraphs shall not apply with respect to any redemption affecting only a single Security, whether such Security is to be redeemed in whole or in part. In the case of any such redemption in part, the unredeemed portion of the principal amount of the Security shall be in an authorized denomination (which shall not be less than the minimum authorized denomination) for such Security.
For all purposes of this Indenture, unless the context otherwise requires, all provisions relating to the redemption of Securities shall relate, in the case of any Securities redeemed or to be redeemed only in part, to the portion of the principal amount of such Securities which has been or is to be redeemed.
Section 11.4 Notice of Redemption.
Unless otherwise specified in a supplemental indenture or in an Officers’ Certificate in the manner specified by Section 3.1 for such securities, notice of redemption shall be given in the manner provided in Section 1.6 not fewer than 30 nor more than 60 days prior to the Redemption Date, unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed, to each Holder of Securities to be redeemed, at its address appearing in the Security Register or, if the Securities are held in book-entry form, sent by electronic transmission.
All notices of redemption shall state:
(1) the Redemption Date,
(2) the Redemption Price (including accrued interest, if any),





(3) if less than all the Outstanding Securities of any series consisting of more than a single Security are to be redeemed, the identification (and, in the case of partial redemption of any such Securities, the principal amounts) of the particular Securities to be redeemed and, if less than all the Outstanding Securities of any series consisting of a single Security are to be redeemed, the principal amount of the particular Security to be redeemed,
(4) in case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, that on and after the Redemption Date, upon surrender of the Security, the Holder of such Security will receive, without charge, a new Security or Securities of authorized denominations for the principal amount thereof remaining unredeemed,
(5) that on the Redemption Date the Redemption Price will become due and payable upon each such Security to be redeemed and, if applicable, that interest thereon will cease to accrue on and after said date,
(6) the place or places where each such Security is to be surrendered for payment of the Redemption Price,
(7) that the redemption is for a sinking fund, if such is the case, and
(8) the CUSIP number or numbers and/or common code(s) of the Security being redeemed.
Notice of redemption of Securities to be redeemed at the election of the Company shall be given by the Company or, at the Company’s request, by the Trustee in the name and at the expense of the Company and shall be irrevocable.
Section 11.5 Deposit of Redemption Price.
On or prior to any Redemption Date, the Company shall deposit with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent (or, if the Company is acting as its own Paying Agent, segregate and hold in trust as provided in Section 10.3) an amount of money sufficient to pay the Redemption Price of, and (except if the Redemption Date shall be an Interest Payment Date) accrued interest, if any, on, all the Securities which are to be redeemed on that date.
Section 11.6 Securities Payable on Redemption Date.
Notice of redemption having been given as aforesaid, the Securities so to be redeemed shall, on the Redemption Date, become due and payable at the Redemption Price therein specified, and from and after such date (unless the Company shall default in the payment of the Redemption Price and accrued interest, if any) such Securities shall cease to bear interest. Upon surrender of any such Security for redemption in accordance with said notice, such Security shall be paid by the Company at the Redemption Price, together with accrued interest, if any, to the Redemption Date; provided, however, that, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 3.1, installments of interest whose Stated Maturity is on or prior to the Redemption Date will be payable to the Holders of such Securities, or one or more Predecessor Securities, registered as such at the close of business on the relevant Record Dates according to their terms and the provisions of Section 3.7.
If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid upon surrender thereof for redemption, the principal and any premium shall, until paid, bear interest from the Redemption Date at the rate prescribed therefor in the Security.





Section 11.7 Securities Redeemed in Part.
Any Security which is to be redeemed only in part shall be surrendered at a Place of Payment therefor (with, if the Company or the Trustee so requires, due endorsement by, or a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Trustee duly executed by, the Holder thereof or its attorney duly authorized in writing), and the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver to the Holder of such Security without service charge, a new Security or Securities of the same series and of like tenor, of any authorized denomination as requested by such Holder, in aggregate principal amount equal to and in exchange for the unredeemed portion of the principal of the Security so surrendered.
ARTICLE 12
SINKING FUNDS
Section 12.1 Applicability of Article.
The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of any series except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 3.1 for such Securities.
The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of any Securities is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of such Securities is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment.” If provided for by the terms of any Securities, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 12.2. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities as provided for by the terms of such Securities.
Section 12.2 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.
The Company (1) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series (other than any previously called for redemption) and (2) may apply as a credit Securities of a series which have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to any Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as and to the extent provided for by the terms of such Securities; provided that the Securities to be so credited have not been previously so credited. The Securities to be so credited shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the Redemption Price, as specified in the Securities so to be redeemed, for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.
Section 12.3 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.
Not fewer than 60 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for such Securities pursuant to the terms of such Securities, the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities pursuant to Section 12.2 and will also deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not fewer than 30 days prior to each such sinking fund payment date, the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 11.3 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of





and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 11.4. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Sections 11.6 and 11.7.
ARTICLE 13
DEFEASANCE AND COVENANT DEFEASANCE
Section 13.1 Company’s Option to Effect Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.
The Company may elect, at its option at any time, to have Section 13.2 or Section 13.3 applied to any Securities or any series of Securities, as the case may be, designated pursuant to Section 3.1 as being defeasible pursuant to such Section 13.2 or 13.3, in accordance with any applicable requirements provided pursuant to Section 3.1 and upon compliance with the conditions set forth below in this Article. Any such election shall be evidenced by a Board Resolution or in another manner specified as contemplated by Section 3.1 for such Securities.
Section 13.2 Defeasance and Discharge.
Upon the Company’s exercise of its option (if any) to have this Section applied to any Securities or any series of Securities, as the case may be, the Company shall be deemed to have been discharged from its obligations with respect to such Securities as provided in this Section on and after the date the conditions set forth in Section 13.4 are satisfied (hereinafter called “Defeasance”). For this purpose, such Defeasance means that the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness represented by such Securities and to have satisfied all its other obligations under such Securities and this Indenture insofar as such Securities are concerned (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging the same), subject to the following which shall survive until otherwise terminated or discharged hereunder:
(1) the rights of Holders of such Securities to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 13.4 and as more fully set forth in such Section, payments in respect of the principal of and any premium and interest on such Securities when payments are due,
(2) the Company’s obligations with respect to such Securities under Sections 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 10.2 and 10.3,
(3) the rights, powers, trusts, duties and immunities of the Trustee hereunder, and
(4) this Article.
Subject to compliance with this Article, the Company may exercise its option (if any) to have this Section applied to any Securities notwithstanding the prior exercise of its option (if any) to have Section 13.3 applied to such Securities.
Section 13.3 Covenant Defeasance.
Upon the Company’s exercise of its option (if any) to have this Section applied to any Securities or any series of Securities, as the case may be,

(1) the Company shall be released from any covenants provided pursuant to Sections 3.1(21) or 9.1(2) for the benefit of the Holders of such Securities and





(2) the occurrence of any event specified in Section 5.1(4) (with respect to any such covenants provided pursuant to Section 3.1(21) or 9.1(2)) and the occurrence of any other Event of Default specified pursuant to Section 3.1 shall be deemed not to be or result in an Event of Default,

in each case with respect to such Securities or any series of Securities as provided in this Section on and after the date the conditions set forth in Section 13.4 are satisfied (hereinafter called “Covenant Defeasance”). For this purpose, such Covenant Defeasance means that, with respect to such Securities, the Company may omit to comply with and shall have no liability in respect of any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such specified Section (to the extent so specified in the case of Section 5.1(4) and the occurrence of any other Event of Default specified pursuant to Section 3.1), whether directly or indirectly by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such Section or by reason of any reference in any such Section to any other provision herein or in any other document, but the remainder of this Indenture and such Securities shall be unaffected thereby.
Section 13.4 Conditions to Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.
The following shall be the conditions to the application of Section 13.2 or Section 13.3 to any Securities or any series of Securities, as the case may be:

(1) The Company shall irrevocably have deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee (or another trustee which satisfies the requirements contemplated by Section 6.9 and agrees to comply with the provisions of this Article applicable to it) as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefits of the Holders of such Securities,
(A) in the case of Securities of a series denominated in currency of the United States of America,
(i) cash in currency of the United States of America in an amount, or
(ii) U.S. Government Obligations which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in respect thereof in accordance with their terms will provide, not later than one day before the due date of any payment, an amount in cash, or
(iii) a combination thereof, or
(B) in the case of Securities of a series denominated in currency other than that of the United States of America,
(i) cash in the currency in which such series of Securities is denominated in an amount, or
(ii) Foreign Government Obligations which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in respect thereof in accordance with their terms will provide, not later than one day before the due date of any payment, an amount in cash, or
(iii) a combination thereof,
in each case sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge, and which shall be applied by the Trustee (or any such other qualifying trustee) to pay and discharge, the principal of and any premium and interest on such Securities on the respective Stated Maturities, in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and such Securities.
(2) In the event of an election to have Section 13.2 apply to any Securities or any series of Securities, as the case may be, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that (A) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling or (B) since the date of this instrument, there has been a change in the applicable Federal income tax law, in either case (A) or (B) to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the Holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, Defeasance and discharge





to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit, Defeasance and discharge were not to occur.
(3) In the event of an election to have Section 13.3 apply to any Securities or any series of Securities, as the case may be, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and Covenant Defeasance to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit and Covenant Defeasance were not to occur.
(4) The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate to the effect that neither such Securities nor any other Securities of the same series, if then listed on any securities exchange, will be delisted as a result of such deposit.
(5) No event which is, or after notice or lapse of time or both would become, an Event of Default with respect to such Securities or any other Securities shall have occurred and be continuing at the time of such deposit or, with regard to any such event specified in Sections 5.1(5) and (6), at any time on or prior to the 90th day after the date of such deposit (it being understood that this condition shall not be deemed satisfied until after such 90th day).
(6) Such Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance shall not cause the Trustee to have a conflicting interest within the meaning of the Trust Indenture Act (assuming all Securities are in default within the meaning of such Act).
(7) Such Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance shall not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound.
(8) Such Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance shall not result in the trust arising from such deposit constituting an investment company within the meaning of the Investment Company Act unless such trust shall be registered under such Act or exempt from registration thereunder.
(9) The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent with respect to such Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance have been complied with.

Section 13.5 Deposited Money, U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations to be Held in Trust; Miscellaneous Provisions.
Subject to the provisions of the last paragraph of Section 10.3, all money, U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations (including the proceeds thereof) deposited with the Trustee or other qualifying trustee (solely for purposes of this Section and Section 13.6, the Trustee and any such other trustee are referred to collectively as the “Trustee”) pursuant to Section 13.4 in respect of any Securities shall be held in trust and applied by the Trustee, in accordance with the provisions of such Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any such Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee





may determine, to the Holders of such Securities, of all sums due and to become due thereon in respect of principal and any premium and interest, but money so held in trust need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Company shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 13.4 or the principal and interest received in respect thereof other than any such tax, fee or other charge which by law is for the account of the Holders of Outstanding Securities. Anything in this Article to the contrary notwithstanding, the Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon Company Request any money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held by it as provided in Section 13.4 with respect to any Securities which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are in excess of the amount thereof which would then be required to be deposited to effect the Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance, as the case may be, with respect to such Securities.
Section 13.6 Reinstatement.
If the Trustee or the Paying Agent is unable to apply any money in accordance with this Article with respect to any Securities by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, then the obligations under this Indenture and such Securities from which the Company has been discharged or released pursuant to Section 13.2 or 13.3 shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to this Article with respect to such Securities, until such time as the Trustee or Paying Agent is permitted to apply all money held in trust pursuant to Section 13.5 with respect to such Securities in accordance with this Article; provided, however, that if the Company makes any payment of principal of or any premium or interest on any such Security following such reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights (if any) of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the money so held in trust.
[Remainder of page intentionally left blank]








IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed as of the day and year first above written.
 
 
 
 
 
ALPINE IMMUNE SCIENCES, INC.
 
 
 
 
By:
 
 
Name:
 
Title:
 
 
 
 
[_______________],
 
as Trustee
 
 
 
 
By:
 
 
Name:
 
Title:




Exhibit
 
Exhibit 5.1
https://cdn.kscope.io/fcbf637dc5b30a0d0abbd8d92bc488a8-projectjuliusexhibit5_image1.gif
Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati
Professional Corporation
701 Fifth Avenue
Suite 5100
Seattle, Washington 98104-7036
O: 206.883.2500 
F: 206.883.2699


July 8, 2020
Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc.
188 East Blaine Street, Suite 200
Seattle, WA 98102
Re:    Registration Statement on Form S-3
Ladies and Gentlemen:
At your request, we have examined the Registration Statement on Form S-3 (the “Registration Statement”), filed by Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) in connection with the registration pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Act”), of the Securities (as defined below).
The Registration Statement relates to the proposed issuance and sale by the Company, from time to time, pursuant to Rule 415 under the Act, as set forth in the Registration Statement, the prospectus contained therein (the “Prospectus”) and the supplements to the prospectus referred to therein (each a “Prospectus Supplement”), of up to an aggregate offering price of $60,000,000, or the equivalent thereof, of shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.001 par value per share (the “Common Stock”), shares of the Company’s preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share (the “Preferred Stock”), the Company’s debt securities (the “Debt Securities”), depositary shares (the “Depositary Shares”) of the Company representing a fractional interest in a share of Preferred Stock, warrants to purchase Common Stock, Preferred Stock or Debt Securities (the “Warrants”), subscription rights to purchase Common Stock, Preferred Stock or Debt Securities (the “Subscription Rights”), purchase contracts of the Company with respect to the securities of the Company or securities of an unaffiliated entity (the “Purchase Contracts”) and units to purchase any of the securities described above in any combination (the “Units” and together with the Common Stock, the Preferred Stock, the Debt Securities, the Depositary Shares, the Warrants, the Subscription Rights and the Purchase Contracts are collectively referred to herein as the “Securities”).
The Securities are to be sold from time to time as set forth in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus contained therein and the Prospectus Supplements. The Debt Securities are to be issued pursuant to a debt securities indenture (the “Indenture”), the form of which has been filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and is to be entered into between the Company and a trustee to be named in a Prospectus Supplement to the Registration Statement (the “Trustee”). The Securities are to be sold pursuant to a purchase, underwriting, subscription or similar agreement in substantially the form to be filed under a Current Report on Form 8-K. The Debt Securities are to be issued in the forms set forth in the Indenture. The Indenture may be supplemented, as applicable, in connection with the issuance of each such series of Debt Securities, by a supplemental indenture or other appropriate action of the Company creating such series of Debt Securities.
We have examined instruments, documents, certificates and records that we have deemed relevant and necessary for the basis of our opinions hereinafter expressed. In such examination, we have assumed: (i) the authenticity of original documents and the genuineness of all signatures; (ii) the conformity to the originals of all documents submitted to us as copies; (iii) the truth, accuracy and completeness of the information, representations and warranties contained in the instruments, documents, certificates and records we have reviewed; (iv) that the Registration Statement, and any amendments thereto (including post-effective amendments), will have become effective under the Act; (v) that a Prospectus Supplement will have been filed with the Commission describing the

AUSTIN BEIJING BOSTON BRUSSELS HONG KONG LONDON LOS ANGELES NEW YORK PALO ALTO
SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SEATTLE SHANGHAI WASHINGTON, DC WILMINGTON, DE


https://cdn.kscope.io/fcbf637dc5b30a0d0abbd8d92bc488a8-projectjuliusexhibit5_image1.gif

Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc.
July 8, 2020
Page 2


Securities offered thereby; (vi) that the Securities will be issued and sold in compliance with applicable U.S. federal and state securities laws and in the manner stated in the Registration Statement and the applicable Prospectus Supplement; (vii) that a definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement with respect to any Securities offered will have been duly authorized and validly executed and delivered by the Company and the other parties thereto; (viii) that any Securities issuable upon conversion, exchange, redemption or exercise of any Securities being offered will be duly authorized, created and, if appropriate, reserved for issuance upon such conversion, exchange, redemption or exercise; (ix) with respect to shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock offered, that there will be sufficient shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock authorized under the Company’s organizational documents that are not otherwise reserved for issuance; and (x) the legal capacity of all natural persons. As to any facts material to the opinions expressed herein that were not independently established or verified, we have relied upon oral or written statements and representations of officers and other representatives of the Company.
Based on such examination, we are of the opinion that:
1.With respect to the shares of Common Stock to be sold by the Company, when both: (a) the Board of Directors of the Company or a duly constituted and acting committee thereof (such Board of Directors or committee being hereinafter referred to as the “Board”) has taken all necessary corporate action to approve the issuance and the terms of the offering of the shares of Common Stock and related matters; and (b) the shares of Common Stock have been delivered either (i) in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting, subscription or similar agreement approved by the Board, or upon the exercise of Warrants to purchase Common Stock, upon payment of the consideration therefor (not less than the par value of the Common Stock) provided for therein or (ii) upon conversion or exercise of any other Security, in accordance with the terms of such Security or the instrument governing such Security providing for such conversion or exercise as approved by the Board, for the consideration approved by the Board, then the shares of Common Stock will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable;
2.With respect to any particular series of shares of Preferred Stock, when both: (a) the Board has taken all necessary corporate action to approve the issuance and terms of the shares of Preferred Stock, the terms of the offering thereof, and related matters, including the adoption of a certificate of designation relating to such Preferred Stock conforming to the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “Certificate”) and the filing of the Certificate with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware; and (b) the shares of Preferred Stock have been delivered either (i) in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting, subscription or similar agreement approved by the Board, or upon the exercise of Warrants to purchase Preferred Stock, upon payment of the consideration therefor (not less than the par value of the Preferred Stock) provided for therein or (ii) upon conversion or exercise of such Security or the instrument governing such Security providing for such conversion or exercise as approved by the Board, for the consideration approved by the Board, then the shares of Preferred Stock will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable;
3.With respect to Debt Securities to be issued under the Indenture, when: (a) the Trustee is qualified to act as Trustee under the Indenture, and the Company has filed respective Form T-1s for the Trustee with the Commission; (b) the Trustee has duly executed and delivered the Indenture; (c) the Indenture has been duly authorized and validly executed and delivered by the Company to the Trustee; (d) the Indenture has been duly qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended; (e) the Board has taken all necessary corporate action to approve the issuance and terms of such Debt Securities, the terms of the offering thereof and related matters; and (f) such Debt Securities have been duly executed, authenticated, issued and delivered in accordance with the provisions of the Indenture and the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting, subscription or similar agreement approved by the Board, or upon the exercise of Warrants to purchase Debt Securities, upon payment of the

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/fcbf637dc5b30a0d0abbd8d92bc488a8-projectjuliusexhibit5_image1.gif

Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc.
July 8, 2020
Page 3


consideration therefor provided for therein, such Debt Securities will be validly issued and will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms, and entitled to the benefits of the Indenture;
4.With respect to Depositary Shares, when: (a) the Board has taken all necessary corporate action to approve the issuance and terms of the Depositary Shares, the terms of the offering thereof, and related matters, including the adoption of a Certificate relating to the Preferred Stock underlying such Depositary Shares and the filing of the Certificate with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware; (b) the Deposit Agreement (the “Deposit Agreement”) or agreements relating to the Depositary Shares and the related Depositary Receipts (the “Depositary Receipts”) have been duly authorized and validly executed and delivered by the Company and the depositary appointed by the Company; (c) the shares of Preferred Stock underlying such Depositary Shares have been deposited with a bank or trust company (which meets the requirements for the depositary set forth in the Registration Statement) under the applicable Deposit Agreement; and (d) the Depositary Receipts representing the Depositary Shares have been duly executed, countersigned, registered and delivered in accordance with the appropriate Deposit Agreement and the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting, subscription or similar agreement approved by the Board upon payment of the consideration therefor provided for therein, the Depositary Shares will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, and entitled to the rights specified in the Deposit Agreement;
5.With respect to the Warrants, when both: (a) the Board has taken all necessary corporate action to approve the issuance and terms of the Warrants and related matters; and (b) the Warrants have been duly executed and delivered against payment therefor, pursuant to the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting, subscription, warrant or similar agreement, duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and a warrant agent, as applicable, and the certificates for the Warrants have been duly executed and delivered by the Company and such warrant agent, then the Warrants will be validly issued and will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms;
6.With respect to the Subscription Rights, when both: (a) the Board has taken all necessary corporate action to authorize the issuance and terms of the Subscription Rights, the terms of the offering thereof, and related matters and (b) the rights agreement under which the Subscription Rights are to be issued has been duly authorized and validly executed and delivered by the Company, then the Subscription Rights will be valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms;
7.With respect to the Purchase Contracts, when: (a) the Board has taken all necessary corporate action to approve the issuance and terms of the Purchase Contracts and related matters and (b) the agreement under which the Purchase Contracts are to be issued has been duly authorized and validly executed and delivered by the Company, then the Purchase Contracts will be valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms; and
8.With respect to the Units, when both: (a) the Board has taken all necessary corporate action to approve the issuance and terms of the Units (including any Securities underlying the Units) and related matters; and (b) the Units (including any Securities underlying the Units) have been duly executed and delivered against payment therefor, pursuant to the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting, or similar agreement duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and any applicable unit or other agents, and the certificates for the Units (including any Securities underlying the Units) have been duly executed and delivered by the Company and any applicable unit or other agents, then the Units will be validly issued and will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/fcbf637dc5b30a0d0abbd8d92bc488a8-projectjuliusexhibit5_image1.gif

Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc.
July 8, 2020
Page 4


Our opinion that any document is legal, valid and binding is qualified as to:
(a)    limitations imposed by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, arrangement, fraudulent conveyance, moratorium or other laws relating to or affecting the rights of creditors generally;
(b)    rights to indemnification and contribution, which may be limited by applicable law or equitable principles; and
(c)    general principles of equity, including without limitation concepts of materiality, reasonableness, good faith and fair dealing, and the possible unavailability of specific performance or injunctive relief and limitation of rights of acceleration, regardless of whether such enforceability is considered in a proceeding in equity or at law.
We express no opinion as to the laws of any other jurisdiction, other than the federal laws of the United States of America, the State of New York as to the enforceability of the Debt Securities and the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.
We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion as an exhibit to the above-referenced Registration Statement and to the use of our name wherever it appears in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement, and in any amendment or supplement thereto. In giving such consent, we do not believe that we are “experts” within the meaning of such term as used in the Act or the rules and regulations of the Commission issued thereunder with respect to any part of the Registration Statement, including this opinion as an exhibit.
Very truly yours,
WILSON SONSINI GOODRICH & ROSATI
Professional Corporation





 
Exhibit

Exhibit 23.1
Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
We consent to the reference to our firm under the caption "Experts" in this Registration Statement (Form S-3) and related Prospectus of Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc. for the registration of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, depositary shares, warrants, subscription rights, purchase contracts and units and to the incorporation by reference therein of our report dated March 30, 2020, with respect to the consolidated financial statements of Alpine Immune Sciences, Inc., included in its Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
Seattle, Washington
July 8, 2020